Main Article Content
The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial profile of Brysocarpus coccineus and Zanthoxylum piperitum in Nigeria. The antibacterial efficacy of methanolic leaf extracts of Brysocarpus coccineus and Zanthoxylum piperitum was determined against six clinical isolates and three typed cultures respectively. The percentage yield of the extracts was calculated, and it showed 5.6% for Brysocarpus coccineus and 4% for Zanthoxylum piperitum. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the two extracts showed the presence of saponins, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids and resin. The extracts effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis at different concentrations. The extract of B. coccineus inhibited S. aureus, K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa at different concentration, while that of Z. piperitum inhibited S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at different concentration. B. coccineus extract had its MIC at 6.25 mg/ml against clinical isolate of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Z. piperitum methanolic extract had its MIC at 6.25 mg/ml against clinical isolate Bacillus subtilis. All the plants extract had no activity against Salmonella typhi, and B. coccineus had no activity against Klebsiella pneumonia. The results of statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the B. coccineus showed that F-cal. is greater than F-tab. This means there is a significant difference in the activity of the extract, while that of Z. piperitum showed that F-cal is less than F-tab. meaning there is no significant difference in the activity of the extract. This reveals the importance of leaf extracts of B. coccineus and Z. piperitum in the control of resistant microbial strains.
Wazis CH, Anuka JA, Timothy SY, Zezi AU, Mohammed GT, Hussaini IM. Acute toxicity and in-vivo effects of leaf extracts of Brysocarpus coccineus shum & thonn in pregnant rat uterus. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012;2(12):130-136.
Gill LS. Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria. Uniben Press, Benin City. 2000;15-65.
Ejeh SA, Onyeyili P, Abalaka SE. Anti-diarrhea activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats. Veterinary World. 2017;10(7):743-747.
Chorpaka P, Nuchnipa N, Hataichanoke N. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extracted from Zanthoxylum piperitum seeds against Aspergillus flavus. Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2017;44(2):584-594.
Walla FM, Bushra HS, Reem NI, Mohammed BH. Antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) against clinical bacterial isolates. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology. 2019;3(2):1-7.
Essien AD, Essiet GA, Akuodor GC, Akpan JL, Chilaka KC, Bassey AL, Ezeokpo BC, Nwobodo NN. Pharmacological evaluation of the aqueous stem barks extract of Bombax buonopozense in the relief of pain and fever. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2016;10(5):59-65.
Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of Brysocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn. (Connaraceae) extract. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Plant. 2007;3(1):28-36.
Oke JM, Hamburger MO. Screening of some Nigerian medicinal plant for antioxidant activity using 2-2-Diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl radical. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2002;5(1-2):77-79.
Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of Brysocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn. (Connaraceae) extract. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Plant. 2010;3(1):28-36.
Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO. Analgesic activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Brysocarpus coccineus. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Science. 2006;5(1):43-46.
Ahamadu AA, Hassan HS, Abubakar MU. Flavonoids glucoside from Brysocarpus coccineus leaves Schum and Thonn Connaraceae). Africa Journal of Traditional, Complimentary and Alternative Medicines. 2007;4(3):257-260.
Yamazaki E, Inagaki M, Kurita O, Inoue T. Antioxidant activity of Japanese pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum DC.) fruit. Food Chemistry. 2007;100:171–177.
Chorpaka P, Nuchinpa N, Hataichanoke N. Antifungal activities of the essential oil extracted from Zanthoxylum piperitum seeds against Aspergillus flavus. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 2017;44(2):584-594.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd Edition. Chapman and Hall, London. 1998;302. ISBN: 0-412-57270-2.
Gislene G, Locatelli J, Freitas P, Silva G. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2000;31(4):1517-1590.
Jain S, Sherma R. Antimicrobial activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium ellipticum. Journal of Chemistry and Pharmacology. 1986;35(8):3487-3489.
Ajali U. Chemistry of biocompounds. 1st Edition, RhyceKerex Publishers, Enugu. 2004;97-118.
Bobbarala V, Katikala P, Naidu K, Penumajji S. Antifungal activity of selected plant extracts against pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger F2723. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2009;2(4):0974-6846.
Seo YY, Sang-Hyun L, Bui HT, Hae-Dong J, Young HK. Antioxidant and anti-osteoporosis activities of chemical constituents of the stems of Zanthoxylum piperitum. Molecules. 2018;23-457.