Incidence of Microorganisms on Environmental Surfaces in Some Secondary Schools in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Famubo, Joseph A.
Oladunjoye, Bunmi B.
Sofoluwe, Yetunde O.


Due to the ubiquitous nature of bacteria and fungi, the microbiological analysis of environmental surfaces (chairs, tables, floors, hand rails, toilet door knobs and class door knobs) of five (5) secondary schools in Birnin Kebbi metropolis was carried out. Surface swabbing method was used for the collection of a representative sample on the surfaces. Media such as Nutrient agar, Eosin methylene blue, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and Mannitol salt agar were used for the isolation of the organisms. The total bacterial count ranged from 1.1×102 to 9.9×103 CFU/ml, while the total fungi count ranged from 0.0 to 3.6 ×103 CFU/ml. The bacteria isolated include: Corynebacterium kutsceri, Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus sphaerious, Staphlococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aeromonas spp, staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas spp, Micococcus varians, while the fungi isolated include Rhizopus stolonifer, Saccharyomyces cerevisae, Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus niger, Mucor spp., Fusarium spp.

The isolation of these organisms followed series of procedures, starting with samples collected with swab sticks emulsified with peptone water, followed by the sterile dilution of each sample to a factor of 10-1 for chairs, tables, hand rail and door knobs while floor was diluted to a factor of 10-2. One millilitre (1ml) aliquots of which was used as a representative sample used for isolation of pure colonies was followed by series of biochemical test to confirm the identification of each isolate. Despite the routine cleaning practiced in secondary school setting, isolation of microorganisms from secondary school setting is inevitable.

Bacterial isolate, fungal isolate, microbial characterization, microorganisms, microbial ecology.

Article Details

How to Cite
Joseph A., F., Bunmi B., O., & Yetunde O., S. (2019). Incidence of Microorganisms on Environmental Surfaces in Some Secondary Schools in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 4(3), 1-14.
Original Research Article


Kathleen PT, Arthur T. Foundations in medical microbiology. McGraw-Hill, New York; 2002.

Francesco Z. Normal bacteria flora; 2010. Available:
(Accessed April 16th 2016)

O’Hara AM, Shanahan F. The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO Reports. 2006;7: 688-693.

Kawo AH, Adam MS, Abdullahi BA, Sani NM. Prevalence and public health implications of the microbial load of Naira notes. Bayero Journal of Pure and Appl. Sci. 2009;2(1):52-57.

Ferson MJ. Infection control in child-care setting communicable diseases intelligence. CDI 2122 Australia. 1997; 21(22):1-23.

Whitaker E. Recommendations for the prevention of Staphylococcal infections for schools; 2005.
(Retrieved December 9th, 2006)

Cogen AL, Nizet V, Gallo RL. Skin microbiota: A source of disease or defence? Bristish Journal of Dermatology. 2008;158(3):442-455.

Fawole MO, Oso BA. Laboratory manual of microbiology. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan; 2007.

Chesebrough M. Medical laboratory manual for tropical countries. ELBS edition. Tropical Health Technology Publications, United Kingdom. 2000;2.

Choi SK, Park SY, Kim R, Lee C, Kim JF, Park SH. Identification and functional analysis of the fusaricidin biosynthetic gene of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication. 2008;365(1):89-95.

Abdulhadi SK, Hassan AH, Da’u A. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among students in Kano, Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedicals, and Health Sciences. 2008;4(4):151-154.

Mousavi B, Hedayati MT, Hedayati N, Ilkit M, Syedmousavi S. Aspergillus species in indoor environments and their possible occupational and public health hazards. Current Medical Mycology. 2016; 2(1):36.