Phenotypic Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Resistance of Escherichia coli from Patients Attending Selected Healthcare Facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

R. H. Abimiku
Y. B, Ngwai
I. H. Nkene
B. E. Bassey
P. A. Tsaku
T. Ibrahim
S. C. Tama
D. Ishaleku
G. R. I. Pennap


Aims: This study investigated the phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistance of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheic patients attending some major health facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; between December, 2017 to March, 2019.

Methodology: A total of 207 confirmed E. coli isolates from loose stool samples of patients with suspected cases of diarrhea (69 from Federal Medical Centre Keffi [MCK] 69 from General Hospital Akwanga [GHA] and 69 from Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia [DASHL]) were included in this study.

Results: E. coli was isolated and identified using standard microbiological methods. The antibiotic susceptibility testing for the isolates was carried out and interpreted in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Phenotypic detection of ESBL production in isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime) was carried out using double disc synergy test. The occurrence of E. coli was 100% in all the hospitals. Age groups 0-5 and 6-10 years have the highest occurrence than age group 35 – >45 years. Isolates from DASHL were more resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (86.9%), Streptomycin (75.0%) and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (68.1%), isolates from FMCK were more resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (84.1%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (69.6%), isolates from GHA were more resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (85.5%) and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (73.0%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was observed with the order of occurrence: FMCK (98.6%) > DASHL (92.8%) > GHA (89.9%). The most common MAR index of 0.2 in DASHL was 0.4 (20.3%); FMCK was 0.4 (15.9%) and GHA was 0.3 (17.4%). The order of occurrence of classes of antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolates in DASHL was MDR (84.0%) ˃ XDR(7.2%) > PDR and NMDR (4.3%); in FMCK was MDR (91.3%) ˃ XDR(4.3%) ˃ NMDR (2.9%) and PDR(1.4%); and in GHA was MDR (88.8%) ˃ NMDR(5.8%) > XDR and PDR(2.9%). Detection rate of ESBL was 53.6% (30/207), distributed in relation to the location as DASHL (60.0%), FMCK (50.0%) and GHA (52.6%).

Conclusion: Most of the isolates from the study locations were antibiotic resistance. Further studies on molecular detection of ESBL, diversity and characterization of the E. coli into pathotypes are ongoing.

Escherichia coli, extended spectrum beta-lactamase, antibiotic

Article Details

How to Cite
Abimiku, R. H., Ngwai, Y. B., Nkene, I. H., Bassey, B. E., Tsaku, P. A., Ibrahim, T., Tama, S. C., Ishaleku, D., & Pennap, G. R. I. (2019). Phenotypic Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Resistance of Escherichia coli from Patients Attending Selected Healthcare Facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 4(3), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Chen HD, Frankel G. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Unraveling pathogenesis. FEMS Microbiological Review, 2014;29: 83-98.

Kim JS, Kim J, Kim SJ, Jeon SE, Oh KH, Cho SH, Kang YH, Han SY, Chung GT. Characterization of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates in the Republic of Korea during 2008-2011. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2014;24(3):421–426.

Fody AM, Boubou L, Moussa A, Bawa HI, Konate A, Yaou C, Zongo C, Salaou C, Daouda A, Sidikou R, Traoure AB, Barro N. Phenotypic Detection of ESBL in multidrug resistant E. coli from clinical isolates in Niamey, Niger. Africa .Final Microbiology Research. 2017; 713-717.

Yamazaki Y, Fukasawa A. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction method discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. Arch Microbiology. 2011;193:83-87.

World Health Organization; 2017.

Bush K, Jacoby GA. Updated functional classification of beta-lactamases. Antimicrobial Agent Chemotherapy. 2010; 54:965-967.

Nkene IH, Ngwai YB, Omede MU, Samuel J, Envuladu EY, Abimiku RH. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in Escherichia coli from urine of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects in Keffi, Nigeria. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences. 2015;3(12):19-25.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Cambridge University United Kingdom. 2006;2:63–70.

Jarlier V, Nicolas MH, Fournier G, Extended broad-spectrum β-lactamases conferring transferable resistance to newer β-lactam agents in Enterobacteriaceae: hospital prevalence and susceptibility patterns. Review of Infectious Diseases. 1998;10:867-8.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); 2015.

Onanuga A, Igbeneghu O, Lamikanra A. A study of the prevalence of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in children from Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Pam African Medical Journal. 2014;17:146.

Sheikh J, Czeczulin JR, Harrington S, Hicks S, Henderson IR, Le Bouguénec C. A novel dispersin protein in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Invasion. 2002;110:1329-1337.

Okeke IN. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in sub-Saharan Africa: Status, uncertainties and necessities. Journal of Infectious in Developing Countries. 2009;3: 817-842.

Abimiku RH, Ngwai YB, Nkene IH, Tatfeng YM. Molecular detection of diarrheagenic pathotypes of Escherichia coli from diarrheic patients in Keffi, Nigeria. Microbioz Journals, Journal of Microbiology and Biomedical Research. 2016;2(3):1-6.

Abdullahi M, Olonitola SO, Inabo IH. Isolation of bacteria associated with

diarrhoea among children attending some hospitals in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2010;3(1):10–15.

Sule EI, Aliyu AM, Abdulaziz BM. Isolation of diarrhegenic bacteria in children attending some selected hospitals within kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Applied Sciences. 2011;6(1):1-6.

Ifeanyi CI, Isu RN, Akpa AC, Ikeneche NF. Enteric bacteria pathogens associated with diarrhoea of children in the federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria. New York Science Journal. 2010;3(1).

Jena1 J, Debata NK, Sahoo RK, Gaur M, Subudhi E. Genetic diversity study of various β-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital using ERIC-PCR. Indian J Med Res 146 (Supplement). 2017;23-29.

Hu YY, Cai JC, Zhou HW, Chi D, Zhang XF, Chen WL, Zhang R, Chen GX. Molecular typing of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from environmental water, swine feces, specimens from healthy humans and human patients. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2013;79(19): 5988–5996.

Ngwai YB, Gyar SD, Pennap GRI, Makut MD, Ishaleku D, Corosi SM, Nkene IH, Uzoaegwai IU. Antibiogram of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli from sources and stool in Keffi, Nigeria. NSUK journal of Science and Technology. 2014;4(1 and 2): 78-85.

Ali MMM, Ahmed SF, Klena JD, Mohamed ZK, Moussa TAA, Ghenghesh KS. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in diarrheic children in Egypt: Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility. Journal of Infection Developing Countries. 2014;8(5):589-596.

Ahmed OL, Ahmed SA, Ahmed IZ. Detection of blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from Egyptian patients with suspected nosocomial infections. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Gene. 2013;14: 283-297.