An Over View of Dermatophytosis in Camels

Main Article Content

Wisal, G. Abdalla

Abstract

Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection of the skin caused by dermatophytes-filamentous fungi which have ability to invade the epidermis and keratinized tissues such as hair, skin or nails. Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common dermatophytes species isolated from camel. The disease is characterized by circumscribed crusty hairless lesion, (1-2 cm) distributed over the head, neck, shoulder, limbs and flanks. Dermatophytosis can be diagnosed by direct examination, fungal culture, skin biopsy and molecular diagnosis methods. This review forecast more light of the different aspects of this disease.

Keywords:
Dermatophytosis, camel, clinical feature, diagnosis, treatment

Article Details

How to Cite
Abdalla, W. G. (2019). An Over View of Dermatophytosis in Camels. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 4(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/30109
Section
Review Article

References

Agab H. Epidemiology of camel diseases in eastern Sudan with emphasis on brucellosis, M.V.Sc Thesis University of Khartoum. Khartoum, Sudan; 1993.

Abbas B, Saint-Martin G, Planchenauct D. Constraints to camel production in eastern Sudan: a survey of pastoralists conception. Sudan J of Vet Sci and Anim Husb. 1993; 32(1):31–41.

Zaki R. Brucella infection among ewes, camels and pigs in Egypt. J of Comparative Pathol. 1984;58:145–51.

Dalling T, Robertson A, Boddie G, Spruell J. Diseases of camels. In: The International Encyclopedia of Veterinary Medicine. Edinburgh, U.K.; W. Green and Son. 1988;585.

Wilson RT. The camel. Longman, New York; 1984.
[ISBN 0-582-77512-4]

Abbas B, Tilley P. Pastoral management for protecting ecological balance in Halaib District, Red Sea Province, Sudan. Nomadic Peoples.1990;29:77–86.

Abbas B, Agab H. A review of camel brucellosis. Preventive Vet Med. 2002;55: 47–56

Rajpal PS, Gill GS,Mohan MH, Thami TG. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton verrucosum. Indian J. Dermatol. 2005;50: 42-43.

Ming PX, Ti YL, Bulmer GS. Outbreak of Trichophyton verrucosum in China transmitted from cows to humans. Mycopathol. 2006;161:225-28.

Wernery U, Kaaden, O R. Infectious Diseases of Camelids. Blackwell Science, Berlin; 2002.

Wisal AG, Salim MO. Isolation and identification of dermatophytes from infected Camels. Sudan J Vet Res. 2010; 25:49–53.

Kuttin ES, Alhanaty E, Feldman M, Chaimovits M, Müller J. Dermatophytosis of camels. J Med Vet Mycol. 1986;24: 341–44.

Mahmoud AL. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi isolated from ringworm lesions of camels. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1993;38:505–08.

Fadlelmula A, Agab H, Le Horgne JM, Abbas B, Abdalla AE. First isolation of Trichophyton verrucosum as the aetiology of ringworm in the Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). Revue d, Elevage Et De Medicine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux. 1994;47: 184–87.

Gitao CG, Agab H, Khalifalla AG. An outbreak of a mixed infection of Dermatophilus congolensis and Microsporum gypseum in camels (Camelus dromedaríus) in Saudi Arabia Revue Scientifique Et Technique De L`Office International Des Epizooties. 1998;17:749–55.

Al-Rubiay KK. Dermatoepidemiology: A household survey among two urban areas in Basra city, Iraq. Int J Dermatol. 2006;4:1-4.

Tuteja FC, Dahiya SS, Narnaware SD. Prevalence of bacterial and fungal diseases in dromedary camels in the Rajsthan state of India. Vet Practitioner. 2015;16(1):28-32.

Smith BP. Large animal internal medicine. Diseases of horse, cattle, sheep and goats. 4th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby-Elsevier; 2002.

Cafarchia C, Figueredo LA, Otranto D. Fungal diseases of horses. Vet Microbiol. 2013;167:215–34.

Chermette R, Ferreiro L. Guillot J. Dermatophytoses in Animals. Mycopathol. 2008;166:385-405.

Abdurahman SHO, Bornstain S. Diseases of camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Somalia and prospects for better health. Nomadic people. 1991;29:104-12.

Al-Salihi KA, AbdHatem A, Ekman E. Pathological studies of mixed dermatomycosis and mange infection in camels accompanied with chronic granulomatous hidradenitis. J of Camel Pract and Res. 2014;20(2):1-7.

Pal M, Lee CW. Trichophyton verrucosum infection in a camel and its handler. Korean J of Vet Clinical Med. 2000;17: 293-294.

Ghoke S, Jadhav KM, Pal M. Dermatophytosis in Indian dromendary (Camelus dromendarius) caused by Trichophyton verrucosum. J of Camel Pract and Res. 2006;13:59-60.

Pal M. First mycological investigation of dermatophytosis in camels due to Trichophyton verrucosum in Ethiopia J. Mycopathol. Res. 2016;54(1): 89-92.

Al-Rawashed OF, Al-Ani FK, Sharrif IA, Al-Qudah KM, Al-Hami Y, Frank N. A survey of camel (Camelus dromedaries) diseases in Jordon.J Zoo Wild Med. 2000;31(3): 335-8.

Chatterjee A, Chakraborty P, Chattopadhyay D, Sengupta DW.Isolation of Trichophyton schoenleinii from a camel. Indian J Anim Hlth. 1978;17:79–81.

Al-Ani FK, Bassam LS, Al-Salhi KA. Epidemiological study of dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton schoenleinii in camels in Iraq Bull Anim Hlth Prod Afr. 1995;43: 87-92.

Tuteja Fa C, Patil NV, Narnaware S D, Dahiya SS. Camel dermal mycoses caused by dermatophytes. J of Camel Pract and Res. 2013;20(2):157-65.

Boever WJ, Rush DM. Microsporum gypseum infection in a dromedary camel. Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 1975;70(10): 1190-2.

Mancianti F, Papini R Cavicchio P Dermatophytosis by Microsporum gypseum in a camel (Camelus bactrianus). Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria di Pisa. 1988;42: 233-37.

Tuteja Fa C, Patil NV, Narnaware SD, Govindasamy N. Primarily human pathogenic fungi causing dermatophytosis in camel. J of Camel Pract and Res. 2013; 20(2):151-55.

Markus R, Huzaira M, Anderson R, et al. A better potassium hydroxide preparation? In vivo diagnosis of tinea with confocal microscopy. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(8): 1076-8.

Lacaz CS, Porto E, Martins JEC, Heins- Vaccari EM, Melo TN. Tratado de Micologia Médica, 9th ed. Prefácio: Bertrand Dupont. São Paulo: Sarvier. 2002;44(5):297-298

Sidirm J. Micologia médica à luz de autores contemporâneos. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2004.

Pérez J, Carrasco L. Diagnóstico histopatológico de micosisenpatología veterinária. Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia. 2000;17:18-22.

Moriello KA. Diagnostic techniques for dermatophytosis. Clin Techniques in Small Anim Pract. 2001;16:219–24

Moriello K. Feline dermatophytosis Aspects pertinent to disease management in single and multiple cat situations. J of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 2014;16: 419–31.

Ilhana Z, Karacab M, Ismail Hakki Ekina IH, Solmazc H, Akkanb AH, Tutuncud M. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats. Brazilian J of Microbial. 2016;47:225–30.

Weitzman I, Summerbell RC. The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995; 8:240-59.

Gupta AK, Ryder JE, Summerbell RC. Onychomycosis: Classification and diagnosis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2004;3:51–56.

Arabatzis M, Xylouri E, Frangiadaki I, Tzimogianni A, Milioni A, Arsenis G, Velegraki A. Rapid detection of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii in rabbit skin specimens by PCR-RFLP. Vet Dermatol. 2006;17:322–26.

Arabatzis M, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, Kuijper EJ, de Hoog GS, Lavrijsen AP, Templeton K, van der Raaij-Helmer EM, Velegraki A, Graser Y, Summerbell RC. Diagnosis of common dermatophyte infections by a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction detection identification scheme. Br J Dermatol. 2007; 157:681–89.

Enany ME, Khafagy AR, Madiha S. Ibrahim1, Marwa M. Azab and ²Dalia T. Hamad1 Identification of dermatophytes isolated from ringworm lesions of camels. SCVMJ. 2013;XVIII(1):1-12.

Wisal GA, Meyer W, Salim MO. Molecular Identification of Trichophyton Spp. by PCR-RFLP. Sudan J Vet Res. 2017;32: 31-33.

Abo El Foutah E, Abd El Wahab G, Mekawyb S, Abdalla MS. Some pathological and mycological studies on ringworm in camels a locality in Sharkia governorate. Benha Vet Med J. 2012;23 (1):26-33

Chermette R, Ferreiro L, Guillot J. Dermatophytoses in animals. Mycopathol. 2008;166:385-405.

Almuzaini AM, Osman SA, Saeed EMA. An outbreak of dermatophytosis in camels (Camelus dromedaríus) at Qassim Region, Central of Saudi Arabia, J of Applied Anim Res. 2016;44(1):126–29.

Rochette F, Engelen M, Bossche V. Antifungal agents of use in animal health - Practical applications J Vet Pharmacol. Therap. 2003;26:31–53.

Haggag Y, Draz A, Samaha H. Soil as a reservoir of certain dermatophytes and other fungi to man and animals. Alexandria J Vet Sci. 1999;15:1–9.

Nashwa KO. Zoonotic aspect of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rabbit farms. Beni-Suef Vet Med J. 2001;11:49–56.

Efuntoye MO, Fashanu SO. Fungi isolated from skins and pens of healthy animals in Nigeria. Mycopathol. 2002;153:21–23.

Rycroft AN, McLay C. Disinfection in the control of small animal ringworm due to Microsporum canis. Vet Rec. 1991;129: 239–241.

Ovchinnikov R, Manoyan M, Panin NA. Vaccines against dermatophytosis in animals. Russian Expirience. 2014.1-33.
DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3053.9205

Hussain MH. Survey on Dermatophytosis in Iraqi camels. Msc Al-Qadissiya Univ; 2010.

KISA JZ. Clinical and pathological investigations on camel skin diseases in some camel rich districts of Northern Kenyan. ENYAN. MSc in clinical studies university of Nairobi; 1992.

El-Ged AM, Khalid AM, Abd El-Tawab AA, Abd El-Baset E. A rapid biological molecular method for identification and differentiation between T. equinum isolated from dermatophytic horses. Benha Vet Med J. 2011;I:70—75.

Zeng X, Zheng Q, Chi X. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in rabbits accompanied by farm staff infection in China. KafKas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2017;23(3):497-501.

Habeb KA, Maikhan HK,. Rachid SK. Molecular identification of dermatophytes among clinical isolates. Asian J of Natural and Applied Sci. 2016;5(2):108-18

Mattei AS, Beber MA, Madrid IM. Dermatophytosis in small animals. Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;2(3):1-6.

Sánchez TAC, Perla García PAE, Cristian Ismael López Zamora CIL, Martínez MA, Valencia VP, Orozco AL. Use of Propolis for topical treatment of dermatophytosis in Dog. Open J of Vet Med. 2014;4:239-245.

Issa NA, Zandana IK. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: Experimental infection and treatment in rabbits. Iraqi J of Vet Sciences. 2009;23:29-34.