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Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen which usually infects individuals with impaired cellular immunity and the healthy. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the humans has lots of defensive mechanisms placed to prevent pathogens from establishing themselves and cause infectious diseases. Survival depends on the pathogen’s ability to overcome such preventive mechanism of the host. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits array of mechanisms that ensure its survival against these stressor. These stressors include gastric acid, bile salt, low oxygen tension, antimicrobial peptides e.t.c. Acid tolerance system (ATR), glutamate decarboxylase system (GAD), BilE system, MVs, oxygen sensors are used by Listeria monocytogenes to enhance its chances of survival within host. Our interest here is to look at such adaptive mesures with respect to the stressors encountered.
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