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Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of medical importance. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is less wide spread than urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria. A study was carried out in Akwanga, Nasarawa State to determine the association between S. mansoni infection rates (prevalence) in humans and infection rates in Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in two communities: Gwanje community and MadaHills community in Akwanga. For infection rates in humans, four hundred (400) urine samples were tested for S. mansoni antigen using point of care circulating cathode antigen (POC-CCA) test kit. Infection rates in snails were determined by S. mansoni cercarial shedding by snails. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were more abundant and had significantly higher (p<0.05) infection rates in dry season than rainy season in both Gwanje and MadaHills. There was a positive correlation between infection rates in humans in Gwanje and MadaHills (21.5%) and (14%) and infection rates in snails in Gwanje and MadaHills (13.9%) and (9.6%) respectively. Snails collected close to portions of the river that community residents earmarked for open defecation within freshwater bodies had significantly higher (p<0.05) infection rates (15.8%) than snails collected from across river banks, (7.1%) and snail infection rates in areas designated for fetching water for drinking and domestic use was (12.7%) . Health education, improved sanitation practices and annual chemotherapy with praziquantel could help interrupt disease transmission and bring about schistosomiasis control in both Gwanje and MadaHills communities.
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