Isolation and Molecular Identification of Biodeteriogens Isolated from Painted Classroom Wall Surfaces in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Main Article Content

H. O. Stanley
B. C. Anele
P. O. Okerentugba
O. M. Immanuel
C. J. Ugboma


Painted wall surfaces provide breeding ground for diverse microbial flora capable of causing deterioration of the building and progressively impact on the health of inhabitant. This study was undertaken to determine the bacterial and fungal biodeteriogens of painted classroom wall surfaces in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Bacterial and fungal biodeteriogens were isolated from classroom wall surfaces showing visible signs of deterioration and dampness. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA was used in the identification of the isolates. The bacterial deteriogens were identified as Myroides odoratus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp. and Alcaligenes aquatilis, while fungal deteriogens were identified as Aspergillus nomius and Trametes polyzona. Presence of microorganisms in classroom wall surfaces can impact on air quality of the learning environment.

Biodeteriogens, ITS region of rDNA, deterioration, painted classroom.

Article Details

How to Cite
O. Stanley, H., C. Anele, B., O. Okerentugba, P., M. Immanuel, O., & J. Ugboma, C. (2020). Isolation and Molecular Identification of Biodeteriogens Isolated from Painted Classroom Wall Surfaces in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 5(3), 1-6.
Original Research Article


Allsopp D, Seal KJ, Gaylarde C. Introduction to biodeterioration. 2nd ed.Cambridge University Press. New York, USA; 2004.

Cutler N, Viles H. Eukaryotic microorganisms and stone biodeterioration. Geomicrobiology Journal. 2010;27:630-647.

Gillatt AC. Bacterial and fungal spoilage of waterborne formulations. Additives. 1992; 10:387-393.

Singh A. Biodegradation of building material. Biodeterioration of stone surfaces. St. Clair LL and Seaward MRD Ed., Kluwer Academic Publisher; 2004.

Gaylarde CC, Gaylarde PM. Biodeterioration of historic buildings in Latin America. 9DBMC-2002. 2002;171: 1-9.

Milica VL, Jelena B. Role of Fungi in Biodeterioration Process of Stone in Historic Buildings. Proc. Nat. Sci, Matica Srpska Novi Sad. 2009;116:245-251.

Mohammadi P, Maghboli-Balasjin N. Isolation and molecular identification of deteriorating fungi from Cyrus the Great tomb stones. Iranian Journal of Microbiology. 2014;6(5):361-370.

Ugbogu OC, Awache I, Agwaranze DI, Ogodo AC, Ubandoma A, Yakubu MN. Microbial deterioration of painted wall surfaces in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2017;4(4):31-34.

Shinkafi SA, Haruna I. Microorganisms associated with deteriorated desurface painted concrete buildings within Sokoto, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 2013; 2(10):314-324.

Obidi O, Okekunjo F. Bacterial and fungal biodeterioration of discolored building paints in Lagos, Nigeria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2017;33: 196. Available:

Gadd GM. Mycotransformation of organic and inorganic substrates. Mycologist. 2004;18:60-70.

Mamta C, Padma S. Building deteriorating fungi as biocontaminant. Asian Journal. Exp. Biological. Science. 2012;3(1):209–213.

Bashir U, Hafeez R. Deterioration of painted wall surface by fungal saprobes: Isolation and identification. Pakistan Journal Phytopathology. 2016;28(1):09-13.

Dupont J, Jacquet C, Dennetière B, Lacoste S. Invasion of the French Paleolithic painted cave of Lascaux by members of the Fusarium solani species complex. Mycologia. 2007;99:526-533.

Ire FS, Eruteya OC. Antimicrobial susceptibility of spoilage bacteria of Atama (Heinsia critana) soup. International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Science. 2017;6(4):2664-2672.

Ogbulie JN, Obiajuru IOC. Microbial deterioration of surface paint coatings. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2004;10(4):485-490.

Anele BC, Okerentugba PO, Stanley HO, Ugboma CJ. Biodeterioration of classroom wall surfaces in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2019;15(1):1-8.

Jeon YL, Yang JJ, Kim MJ, Lim G, Cho SY, et al. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2012;61:1766- 1769.

Beharrysingh R. Myroides bacteremia: A case report and concise review. IDCases. 2017;8:34-36.

Elumalai P, Elumalai EK, David E. Fungi associated with deteriorations of painted wall surfaces: Isolation and identification. European Journal of Academic Essays. 2014;1(3):48-50.

Gutarowska B. Moulds in biodeterioration of technical materials. Folia Biologica et Oecologica. 2014;10:27–39.

Zukiewicz-Sobczac WA. The role of fungi in allergic diseases. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2013;30(1):42-45.

Smith JA, Kauffman CA. Pulmonary fungal infections. Respirology. 2012;17(6):913-26.

Hsu LY, Ng ES, Koh LP. Common and emerging fungal pulmonary infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010;24(3):557-77.

Gauthier A, Jaubert J, Traversier N, Lemant J, Balu L, et al. Trametes polyzona, an emerging filamentous basidiomycetes in Reunion Island. Mycoses, Wiley. 2017;60(6):412-415.

Caira M, Posteraro B, Sanguinetti M, De Carolis E, Leone G, Pagano L. First case of breakthrough pneumonia die to Aspergillus nomius in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia, Medical Mycology. 2012;50(7):746-750.