Main Article Content
Seed germination is the basis and initial stage in the process of plant growth and development. Bacillus subtilis QM3 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with function of growth promoting, promoting, prevention of pathogens and pests attack and can improve plant resistance to different stress factors. Through the measurement of the early germination rate of wheat (Triticum aestivam L.). seeds under B. subtilis QM3 treatment, the results showed that B. subtilis QM3 can significantly promote the germination of wheat seeds, which has reached a significant level at 6h after seeds sowing or at 6 h of treatment, during imbibition. The β-amylase isoenzyme in early period of wheat seed germination was measured by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the band width and brightness of β-amylase isoenzyme of wheat seeds treated with B. subtilis QM3 increased during three to 6 h of imbibition and especially the effect was significant at 6 h. In the early period, the band of α-amylase isoenzyme could not be detected. It is suggested that the increase of β-amylase isoenzyme early band may be one of the main reasons for B. subtilis QM3 to promote wheat seed germination. Through the combination of B. subtilis QM3 with free and binding states of β-amylase, it was found that the former can increase the activity of β-amylase by either increasing free β-amylase or releasing binding β-amylaseisoenzyme. β-amylaseisoenzyme inhibitors can significantly inhibit β-amylase activity, nevertheless α-amylase activators and inhibitors have no significant effect on β-amylaseisoenzyme, which further proved that the β-amylase exerted the effects in the early period of wheat seed more precisely during the imbibition of the seeds.
Albajes R, Cantero-Martínez C, Capell T, et al. Building bridges: An integrated strategy for sustainable food production throughout the value chain Molecular Breeding: new Strategies in Plant Improvement. 2013;32(4):743-770.
Ittersum V, Martin KJERoAE. Crop yields and global food security will yield increase continue to feed the world. European Review of Agriculture Economics. 2016; 43(1):191-192.
Van Ittersum MK. Integrated physiology and proteome analysis of embryo and endosperm highlights complex metabolic networks involved in seed germination in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal Plant Physiology. 2018;229:63-76.
Edmondson JL, Davies ZG, Gaston KJ, Leake JR, Kardol P. Urban cultivation in allotments maintains soil qualities adversely affected by conventional agriculture Journal of Applied Ecology. 2014;51(4):880-889.
Zakharova O, et al. The effects of CuО nanoparticles on wheat seeds and seedlings and Alternaria solani fungi: In vitro study [J]. Iop Conference. 2019; 226(1):012036.
Wang J, Yu Y, Tian X. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on the germinating characteristics of wheat seed [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2012;81(4):463-465.
Zhang H, Dou W, Jiang CX, Wei ZJ, Liu J. Hydrogen sulfide stimulates β-amylase activity during early stages of wheat grain germination. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 2010;5(8):1031-1033.
Dicko M. Purification and characterization of β-amylase from Curculigo pilosa. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1999;52:802–805.
Hu QP, Xu JG, Zhang F, Tian CR. Changes of morphological parameter of wheat seed pretreatment by the biocontrol agents Bacillus subtilis QM3 during germination. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2013;44(14):2168-72.
Hu Q, Liu R, Liu J. Effects of Bacillus subtilis QM3 on germination and antioxidant enzymes activities of wheat seeds under salt stress. Open Access Library Journal. 2019;06(03):1-9.
Hao Y, Wu H. Mitigative effect of Bacillus subtilis QM3 on root morphology and resistance enzyme activity of wheat root under lead stress. Advances in Micro-biology. 2015;05(06):469-78.
Ma WG, Zhang ZH. Determination of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seed vigour using controlled 324 deterioration followed by a conductivity test. Seed Science and Technology. 2020:48(1):1-10.
Zhou L, Xia M. Toxic effect of perfluoro-octanoic acid on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chemosphere. 2016;159:420-425.
Kristensen M. Large-scale purification and characterization of barley limit dextrinase, a member of the α-amylase structural family. Cereal Chemistry Journal. 1998; 75(4):473-479.
Wu MJ, McKay S, Howes N. Polymorphism and pedigree analysis of β-amylase isozymes in Australian wheat. Journal of Cereal Science. 2011;53(3):362-70.
Yu L. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide enhanced antioxidant capacity, amylase activities and salt tolerance of cucumber hypocotyls and radicles. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2013;12(3):445-56.
Zhang H. A rapid response of β-amylase to nitric oxide but not gibberellin in wheat seeds during the early stage of germination. Planta. 2005;220(5):708-716.
Uchida K. Immunological characterization ofamylase isozymes in developing and germinationg wheat seeds. 1987;14(1):89-94.
Monroe JD, Storm AR. β-Amylase1 and β-Amylase3 Are Plastidic Starch Hydrolases in Arabidopsis That Seem to Be Adapted for Different Thermal, pH, and Stress Conditions. Plant Physiology. 2014.166(4): 1748-1763.
Yang H. Enhancing the NaCl tolerance potential of wheat on root morphology and osmoregulation substance by exogenous application of QM3. RGUHS Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;03(11):1-14.