South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology 2019-11-16T09:20:42+00:00 South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-1989)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJRM/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Association between Schistosoma mansoni Infection Rates in Humans and in Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria 2019-11-16T09:20:42+00:00 J. I. Chikwendu A. Onekutu I. O. Ogbonna E. U. Amuta <p>Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of medical importance. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by <em>Schistosoma mansoni </em>is less wide spread than urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria. A study was carried out in Akwanga, Nasarawa State to determine the association between <em>S. mansoni </em>infection rates (prevalence) in humans and infection rates in <em>Biomphalaria pfeifferi</em> snails in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in two communities: Gwanje community and MadaHills community in Akwanga. For infection rates in humans, four hundred (400) urine samples were tested for <em>S. mansoni</em> antigen using point of care circulating cathode antigen (POC-CCA) test kit. Infection rates in snails were determined by <em>S. mansoni </em>cercarial shedding by snails. <em>Biomphalaria pfeifferi </em>snails were more abundant and had significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) infection rates in dry season than rainy season in both Gwanje and MadaHills. There was a positive correlation between infection rates in humans in Gwanje and MadaHills (21.5%) and (14%) and infection rates in snails in Gwanje and MadaHills (13.9%) and (9.6%) respectively. Snails collected close to portions of the river that community residents earmarked for open defecation within freshwater bodies had significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) infection rates (15.8%) than snails collected from across river banks, (7.1%) and snail infection rates in areas designated for fetching water for drinking and domestic use was (12.7%) . Health education, improved sanitation practices and annual chemotherapy with praziquantel could help interrupt disease transmission and bring about schistosomiasis control in both Gwanje and MadaHills communities.</p> 2019-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Characterisation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Raw and Fermented Milk 2019-11-16T09:20:41+00:00 S. Aforijiku A. A. Onilude <p>The aim of this study was to isolate and phenotypically characterised lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from samples of raw (cow, goat) and traditional fermented milk product (<em>nono</em>).The assessed characteristics of LAB as indexed in Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology are cellular characteristic (Gram staining), growth at pH 4.5 and 9.6, growth in 5% NaCl, production of ammonia from arginine, tolerance to temperature 15 and 45<sup>o</sup>C, starch hydrolysis, and fermentation of sugars test. Fifty-five LAB were isolated and identified as <em>Pediococcus acidilactici</em> (15), <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> (29), <em>Lactobacillus brevis</em> (4), <em>Lactobacillus casei </em>(4), and <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> (3). Four species of the <em>Lactobacillus</em> isolated from <em>nono</em> samples were identified as <em>Lactobacillus casei</em>, <em>Lactobacillus brevis</em>, <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> and&nbsp; <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> while <em>Pediococcus acidilactici</em> was isolated from raw cow and goat milk.&nbsp; <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> was the dorminant organism with the highest frequency occurrence of 52.7% while <em>Lactobacillus fermentum </em>had the lowest (5.5%).&nbsp; Lactobacillus species are normally found in fermented milk product which could be of great importance in food industry.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth, Yield and Seed Nutrient Quality of Soybean (Glycine max L.) as Affected by Organic, Biofertilizer and Synthetic Fertilizer Application 2019-11-16T09:20:41+00:00 Dhanushi Samarakoon Neelamanie Yapa <p>Pot experiment was carried out in dry zone of Sri Lanka in the year 2015 with the aim of investigating the effects of organic manure, biofertilizers and synthetic fertilizer application on growth, yield and seed nutrient quality of soybean (<em>Glycine max</em> L.). Treatments were&nbsp; field soil only (T<sub>0</sub>), field soil and 5% biochar (T<sub>1</sub>), field soil and 5% cow dung (T<sub>2</sub>), field soil, 2.5% biochar and 2.5% cow dung (T<sub>3</sub>), field soil, 5% biochar and <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> (T<sub>4</sub>), field soil, 5% biochar and mycorrhizae (T<sub>5</sub>), field soil, 5% cow dung and <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> (T<sub>6</sub>) field soil, 5% cow dung and mycorrhizae (T<sub>7</sub>), field soil and synthetic fertilizer (T<sub>8</sub>), field soil, 2.5% cow dung 2.5% biochar and synthetic fertilizer (T<sub>9</sub>), field soil, 5% cow dung, mycorrhizae and <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> (T<sub>10</sub>), field soil, 5% biochar, mycorrhizae and <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> (T<sub>11</sub>). The treatments were tested in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six replicates.</p> <p>The results indicated that application of organic and biofertilizers with synthetic fertilizers (T<sub>9</sub>) significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved the relative growth rate, number of leaflets, root dry weight, shoot dry weight of soybean. However, soybean yield such as the number of pods and the dry weight of 100 seeds, was significantly high (p&lt;0.05) with field soil, 5% cow dung, mycorrhizae and <em>Bradyrhizobium </em>(T<sub>10</sub>).&nbsp; Higher seed protein percentage was observed in T<sub>10</sub>, fat percentage in T<sub>4</sub> and crude fibre percentage in T<sub>8</sub> treatments. In conclusion, the application of organic and biofertilizers together resulted in an improvement of the yield components and nutrient quality of soybean seeds, except for the case of crude fiber content which increased by the application of synthetic fertilizer. Overall, organic and biofertilizers could be used as efficient substitutes for synthetic fertilizers, without compromising the yield and nutrient quality of soybean.</p> 2019-11-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activity of Crude and Purified Ethanol and Ethyl-acetate Extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. Whole Plant 2019-11-16T09:20:41+00:00 A. T. Oseni O. O. Olusola-Makinde M. K. Oladunmoye <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To study the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial efficacy of crude and purified <em>Euphorbia hirta </em>whole plant extract on Gram-positive bacteria isolated from otitis media.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Experimental Research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Sample: Department of Microbiology (Mtech Laboratory) and Department of Chemistry (Organic Chemistry Laboratory), School of Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Between November 2018 and March 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The streak plate method was used for bacterial isolation, maceration method for<em> Euphorbia hirta </em>whole plant extraction using ethanol and ethyl-acetate as solvents. The <em>E. hirta </em>whole plant extracts were purified using column chromatography method. The extracts were assayed on the test bacterial isolates by agar diffusion technique. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts were carried out by agar dilution and agar diffusion techniques, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The ethanolic extract had the highest extraction yield (19%). The <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was resistant to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin (30 µg), gentamycin (10 µg), and streptomycin (30 µg). The phytochemical screening of crude plant extracts showed presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. At 100 mg/ml, crude and purified ethanol extracts showed antibacterial activity with 18±0.57 mm and 14±0.57 mm respectively on <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>. The MIC and MBC of purified ethanol extract ranged between 6.25-50 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml-100 mg/ml respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This research showed that <em>E. hirta </em>whole plant extract possesses antibacterial activity. The purified <em>E. hirta </em>whole plant extract showed higher inhibitory effect compared to crude extracts. This is an indication that purified <em>E. hirta </em>whole plant extract can be used in the development of novel therapeutic drugs in the treatment of otitis media.</p> 2019-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Culture Dependent Characterization of Escherichia coli from the Sewage Waste Water of Lahore, Pakistan 2019-11-16T09:20:40+00:00 Abida Bano Basharat Ali <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Infectious disease haemorrhagic uremic syndrome (HUS), present in sewage water, its cross contamination with drinking water may affect the community. This study was conducted to isolate the pathogenic strain of <em>E. coli </em>O157 from the sewage waste water of Lahore, Pakistan. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility pattern for the isolated strains. Selective Hichrome EC O157 agar media was used for the isolation of <em>E</em>. <em>coli</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Taxonomic status of strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Serotyping of <em>E. coli</em> O157 strains was accomplished by Prolex<sup>TM </sup><em>E. coli</em> O157 Latex Test Reagent Kit results for O157. Bacterial strains were also evaluated for biofilm formation, toxin related genes (<em>stx1</em>, <em>stx2</em>, <em>stx2c</em>, <em>stx2d</em>) and antibiotic sensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Bacterial strains showed resistance against amoxicillin, tobramycin, tetracycline and nitrofurantoin antibiotics. Maximum biofilm formation was shown by strain E124 when used as monoculture. In cocultures, strains E35 and E101 were the most efficient biofilm formers. PCR amplification recorded negative results for shiga toxin genes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Shiga toxin genes were not present in any of the <em>E. coli</em> strain, from which we can suggest that our environment is free of shiga toxin genes. <em>E. coli</em> was present in sewage water, its cross contamination with drinking water may affect the community. Therefore, waste water should be treated properly before discarding it into the common water bodies.</p> 2019-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##