Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella among Food and Food Vendors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Wemedo S. A.

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Janet Olufunmilayo Williams

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Doctor Ledum Ndem *

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Salmonella contamination in ready-to-eat food is seen as a health risk, and improper food processing puts customers at risk. This study therefore was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolated from food vendor’s hands and work bench in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Ninety (90) samples were collected for a period of three months from three different location in Port Harcourt with five sampling points in each locations. Samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella organism using standard microbiological procedure for enumeration and identification. Salmonella-Shigella (SSC) counts ranged from 1.9+4.9x103cfu/g to 3.8+1.4x103cfu/g for choba and Aggrey road respectively in cooked rice, 0.2+0.3x103cfu/g to 0.9+0.4x103cfu/g for Mile 3 and Aggrey road respectively in Moi Moi, 0.6+0.5x103cfu/g to 1.5+1.5x103cfu/g for Aggrey road and Mile 3 in Salad, and 1.6+0.7x103cfu/ml to 2.6+1.7x103cfu/ml for Choba and Aggrey road in Egusi soup. Six (6) Salmonella spp were isolated in Salad and workbench from Mile 3 and Choba respectively. Salmonella showed a decreasing trend of resistance in the order: Ceporex, Gentamycin and Augmentin (100%) > Nalidixic acid (83.3%) > Septrin and Streptomycin (66.7%) > Tarivid, Pefloxacin and Ampicilin (33.3%). The molecular identification of the Six (6) isolates using polymerase chain reaction confirmed 100% Salmonella spp isolates. The six (6) Salmonella isolates were identified with blaTEM and blaSHV gene 6(100%). Out of the Six (6) isolates, 100% had multidrug resistance index ≥ 0.2 while 0.00% had <0.2 as their Multidrug Resistance Index. Conclusively, this study revealed prevalence of Salmonella spp in food and food vendors in Rivers State, posing a serious threat to consumers. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be discouraged to reduce the prevalence of resistant strains of Salmonella.

Keywords: Prevalence, food vendors, Salmonella spp, antimicrobial susceptibility


How to Cite

S. A. , W., Williams , J. O., & Ndem , D. L. (2023). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella among Food and Food Vendors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 15(3), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2023/v15i3288

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

WHO. Promoting Safe Food Handling; 2019. Available:https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-hygiene/en/ Access on 27 August 2020

Abd-Elghany SM, Sallam KI, Abd-Elkhalek A, Tamura T. Occurrence, genetic characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat and giblets. Epidemiology and Infection. 2015;143:997–1003.

Adesokan HK, Akinseye VO, Adesokan GA. Food safety training is associated with improved knowledge and behaviours among foodservice establishments’ workers. International Journal of Food Science. 2015.

Ajene AN, Walker CLF, Black RE. Enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: A systematic review of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella-associated reactive arthritis. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2013;31:299–307.

Antunes P, Mourão J, Campos J, Peixe LS. The role of poultry meat. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2016;22:110–121.

Arslan S, Eyi A. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella species in retail meat products. Journal of Food Protection. 2010;73:1613–1617.

Barak JD, Schroeder BK. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: The life cycle of human pathogens on plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 2012; 50:241–266.

Bartz JA, Marvasi M, Teplitski M. Salmonella and tomatoes. In the Produce Contamination Problem: Causes and Solution Matthews KR, Sapers GM, Gerba CP, Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 2014:269–289.

Behravesh C, Jones TF, Vugia DJ, Long C, Marcus R, Smith K, Thomas S, Zansky S, Fullerton KE, Henao OL. Deaths associated with bacterial pathogens transmitted commonly through food: Foodborne diseases active surveillance network. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204(2):263–267.

Bennett S, Littrell K, Hill T, Mahovic M, Behravesh CB. Multistate foodborne disease outbreaks associated with raw tomatoes, United States, 1990–2010: A recurring public health problem. Epidemiology and Infection. 2015;143: 1352–1359.

Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet. 2005; 366(2):749–762.

Brenner FW, Villar RG, Angulo FJ, Tauxe R, Swaminathan B. Salmonella nomenclature. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2000;38:2465–2467.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Tennessee infections associated with peanut butter – United States, 2006–2007. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2007;56:521–524.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigation update: Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Montevideo infections; 2010.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of human salmonella infections linked to live poultry in backyard flocks (final update). Atlanta, GA, USA Page last updated. 2012;26.

Charlebois S, McCormick M, Juhasz M. Meat consumption and higher prices: Discrete determinants affecting meat reduction or avoidance amidst retail price volatility. British Food Journal. 2016;118: 2251–2270.

Critzer FJ, Doyle MP. Microbial ecology of foodborne pathogens associated with produce. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2010;21:125–130.

Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004;82:346–353.

Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clinical Microbiology Review. 2015;2(28)901–937.

De Jong A, Bywater R, Butty P, Deroover E, Godinho K, Klein U, Marion H, Simjee S, Smets K, Thomas V. A pan-European survey of antimicrobial susceptibility towards human-use antimicrobial drugs among zoonotic and commensal enteric bacteria isolated from healthy food-producing animals. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2009;63:733–744.

De Jong B, Ekdahl K. The comparative burden of salmonellosis in the European Union member states, associated and candidate countries. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:1–9.

Destro MT, Ribeiro VB. Foodborne zoonoses. In Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences; Devine C, Dikeman M, Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA. 2014:17–21.

ECDC. Salmonella the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks in the European Union; 2020.

Available:https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/salmonella-most-common-cause-foodborne-outbreaks-european-union

Simpson KM, Hill-Cawthorne GA, Ward MP, Mor SM. Diversity of Salmonella serotypes from humans, food, domestic animals and wildlife in New South Wales, Australia. BMC Infectious Disease. 2018; 18:1–11.

Solomon FB, Wada FW, Anjulo AA, Koyra HC, Tufa EG. Burden of intestinal pathogens and associated factors among asymptomatic food handlers in South Ethiopia: Emphasis on salmonellosis. Biomedical Research Notes. 2018;11:1–6.

Srinivasan R, Karaoz U, Volegova M, MacKichan J, Kato-Maeda M, Miller S, Nadarajan L, Brodie EL, Lynch SV. Use of 16S rRNA Gene for identification of a broad range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. Plos One. 2015;10(2):1–22.

Stanaway JD, Parisi A, Sarkar K, Blacker BF, Reiner RC, Hay SI, Nixon MR, Dolecek C, James SL, Mokdad AH. The global burden of non-typhoidal Salmonella invasive disease: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infectious Disease. 2019;19:1312–1324.

Sundström K. Cost of illness for five major foodborne illnesses and sequelae in Sweden. Applied. Health Economics and Health Policy. 2018;16:243–257.

Teffo LA, Tabit FT. An assessment of the food safety knowledge and attitudes of food handlers in hospitals. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1–12.

Williams JO, Hakam K. Microorganism associated with dump sites in Port Harcourt metropolis. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment. 2016;8(2):9-12.

Yenealem DG, Yallew WW, Abdulmajid S. Food safety practice and associated factors among meat handlers in gondar town: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Environmental and Public Health; 2020.

Yu H, Neal J, Dawson M, Madera JM. Implementation of behavior-based training can improve food service employees’ handwashing frequencies, duration, and effectiveness. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. 2018;59:70–77.

Abbott DW, Boraston AB. Structural biology of pectin degradation by Enterobacteriaceae. Microbiology Molecular Biology Review. 2008;72:301–316.

Achtman M, Wain J, Weill FX, Nair S, Zhou Z, Sangal V, Krauland MG, Hale JL, Harbottle H, Uesbeck A. Multilocus sequence typing as a replacement for serotyping in Salmonella enterica. Plos Pathogens. 2012;8:e1002776.

Sampson T, Barika PN, Peekate LP, Akani NP. Prevalence and antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from edible cockle (Senilia senilis) in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health; 2020.

Husain NRN, Muda WMW, Jamil NIN, Hanafi NNN, Rahman RA. Effect of food safety training on food handlers’ knowledge and practices. British Food Journal. 2016;118:795–808.

Centers of Disease Control and Infection (CDC). Outbreaks involving salmonella; 2020.

Available:https://www.cdc.gov/Salmonella/outbreaks.html

Afreen A, Ahmed Z, Ahmad H, Khalid N. Estimates and burden of foodborne pathogens in RTE beverages in relation to vending practices. Food Quality and Safety. 2019;3:107–115.

Lenzi A, Marvasi M, Baldi A. Agronomic practices to limit pre-and post-harvest contamination and proliferation of human pathogenic enterobacteriaceae in vegetable produce. Food Control. 2020; 107486.

Sallam KI, Mohammed MA, Hassan MA, Tamura T. Prevalence, molecular identification and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella serovars isolated from retail beef products in Mansoura, Egypt. Food Control. 2014;38:209–214.

Ford L, Haywood P, Kirk MD, Lancsar E, Williamson DA, Glass K. Cost of Salmonella Infections in Australia. Journal of Food Protection. 2015;82:1607–1614.

Williams JO, Agunkwo M. Remediation of crude oil polluted River using Nostoc and Oscillatoria species. Journal of Biology and Genetic Research. 2018;4(1):1-9.