Microbiological and Physiochemical Quality of Freshwater in Isiokpo Community, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Ewulonu, Chigozie Chioma
Obire, Omokaro
Akani, Nedie Patience

Abstract

Aim: To determine microbiological quality of fresh water in Isiokpo community.

Study Design: This study employs standard scientific methods, statistical analysis and interpretation.

Place and duration of the Study: Fresh water samples were collected from Isiokpo community in Ikwerre L.G.A. of Rivers State, Nigeria. Sampling was done every two weeks from three stations of Isiokpo river for duration of six months (February–July, 2018). Samples were transported in ice packed coolers to the Microbiology Laboratory of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, and immediately processed for analysis. 

Methodology: Ten- fold serial dilution technique was adopted after which 0.1 ml of appropriately diluted stock was inoculated onto sterile Microbiological media. Spread plate technique was employed for the isolation, enumeration and identification of microorganisms. The APHA standards were adopted in the determination of physico-chemical parameters which include turbidity, colour, odour, pH, conductivity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nitrate, sulphate, calcium and BOD5. The  Duncan  multiple range test  was  employed  for analysis  of  variance  (ANOVA) of  the  data  obtained.

Results: The mean counts for Total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 4.77±0.20 log10 CFU/ml to 4.92±0.11 log10 CFU/ml. Total coliform  bacteria  ranged  from  4.28±0.25 to 4.60±0.25log10 CFU/ml. Total Vibrio counts  ranged from 1.77±1.97 log10 CFU/ml to 4.25±0.09 log10 CFU/ml. Total Pseudomonas  counts ranged  from  2.48±1.93 log10 CFU/ml  to 4.0217±0.34 log10 CFU/ml. Total  heterotrophic fungal counts ranged from  2.31±1.81 log10 CFU/ml  to 4.21± 0.22 log10 CFU/ml in all the stations. The microorganisms isolated belong to the genera of Bacillus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Shigella, Vibrio, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor and Rhizopus. The pH values ranged from 5.60 to 6.80, Conductivity 35 to 40 µs/cm, Total suspended solids (TSS) 48 mg/L to 54.00 mg/L, Total Dissolved Solids 5.20 to 6.50 mg/L, Nitrate 1.00 to 1.45 mg/L, Sulphate 1.00 to 1.30 mg/L, Calcium 6.00 to 9.20 mg/L and BOD 5.30 to               6.20 mg/L in all the stations.

Conclusion: The presence of E. coli which is an indicator of fecal contamination is enough to suspect that the water body is contaminated with fecal matter and pathogenic bacteria. The water should therefore not be put to human use without proper treatment because the water is of low quality and constitute a danger to public health.

Keywords:
Freshwater, microorganisms, analysis of variance, E. coli, Shigella, fecal contamination.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chioma, E. C., Omokaro, O., & Patience, A. N. (2019). Microbiological and Physiochemical Quality of Freshwater in Isiokpo Community, Rivers State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 3(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i130078
Section
Original Research Article