Impact of Pesticides on Microbial Diversity and Enzymes in Soil
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology,
Introduction: The presence of pesticides in soils could result in alterations in microbial activities (enzyme activities, microbial populations), soil physical and chemical properties.
Research gap/Challenges: Insufficient literatures on extensive monitoring of soil quality through enzyme activity, during pesticides application. Existing literatures concerning analysis of effect of pesticide application on soil enzyme activity are not comprehensive with respect to number of soil enzymes analysed.
Aim/Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of carbofuran and paraquat on soil biochemical characteristics on certain soils in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Methodology: These pesticides were applied at recommended doses, their effects on soil organic carbon, enzymes activity and microbial populations were assessed using standard methods. The enzymes monitored were amylase, invertase, protease, urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase. Microbial counts were carried out for total heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, nitrifying bacteria and phosphate solubilizers using the spread plate method.
Results: There were variations in the different enzyme activities in carbofuran – and paraquat - treated soil during this research. Dehydrogenase activity increased in treated soils. Also, urease activity was lower compared to other enzyme activities. As the study progressed, variations in values of soil organic carbon were observed. There was a gradual increase in microbial counts and can be traceable to their ability to temporarily mineralize and use the pesticides as carbon and energy source. The soil organic carbon, enzymes and microbial counts values were significantly different at P=0.05.
Conclusion: This research revealed that the pesticides cause temporal impact on microbial populations and enzyme activities, associated with the pesticide type at recommended field application rates. A change in numbers, activity and diversity of soil microorganisms may act as indicators of soil fertility and reflect the soil quality.
- Microbial diversity
- soil enzymes
- phosphate solubilizers
- nitrifying bacteria
How to Cite
Sinsabaugh RL, Lauber CL, Weintraub MN, Ahmed B, Allison SD, Crenshaw C, et al. Stoichiometry of soil enzyme activity at global scale. Ecol. Lett. 2008;11:1252–1264.
Hill BH, Follstad-Shah JJ, Sinsabaugh RL. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry of microbial organic nutrient acquisition in soil and sediment. Nature. 2009;462:795–798.
Burns RG, De Forest JL, Marxsen J, Sinsabaugh, RL Stromberger ME, Wallenstein MD, et al. Soil enzymes in a changing environment: Current knowledge and future directions. Soil Biol Biochem. 2013;58:216–234.
Luo L, Meng H, Gu JD. Microbial extracellular enzymes in biogeochemical cycling of ecosystems. J. Environ. Manage. 2017;197:539–549.
Swensen B, Bakken L. nitrification potential and urease activity in a mineral subsoil. Soil Biol Biochem. 1998;30(10): 1333-1341.
Pant HK, Warman PR. Enzymatic hydrolysis of soil organic phosphorus by immobilized phosphatases. Boil. Fertil Soils. 2000;30:306-311.
Fuentes B, Bolan N, Naidu R, de la Luz Mora M. Phosphorus in organic waste-soil systems. J Soil Sc Plant Nutr. 2006;6(2):64 – 83.
Martiny JBH, Bohannan BJM, Brown JH, Colwell RK, Fuhrman JA, Green JL, et al. Microbial biogeography: Putting microorganisms on the map. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:102–112.
Zhang C, Liu G, Xue S, Wang G. Soil bacterial community dynamics reﬂect changes in plant community and soil properties during the secondary succession of abandoned farmland in the Loess Plateau. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2016; 97:40–49.
Gundi VA, Viswanath B, Chandra MS, Kumar VN, Reddy BR. Activities of cellulase and amylase in soils as influenced by insecticide interactions. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe. 2007;68:278-285.
Qing Z, Jie T, Zhaoyang L, Wei Y, Yucong D. The inﬂuence of soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities on soil quality of saline-alkali agroecosystems in Western Jilin Province, China. Sustainability. 2018;10:1529-1543.
Dhillon A, Sharma K, Rajulapati V, Goyal A. Proteolytic enzymes. Current Development in Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017:149-173.
Sebiomo A, Ogundero VW, Bankole SA. Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011;10:770-778.
Valiolahpor R, Lakzia A, Hassan B, Maffi SA, Barari SA, Barari H. Impacts of some conventional rice herbicides on catabolic activity of soil microorganisms. World Appl Sci J. 2011;13(2):249-255.
Latha PC, Gopal H. Effect of herbicides on soil microorganisms. IJWS. 2010;42(3-4): 217-222.
Newton Z, Lupwayi A, Stewart A, Brandt K, Neil-Harker C, John T. Contrasting soil, microbial responses to fertilizers and herbicides in a canolaebarley rotation. Soil Biol Biochem. 2010;42:1997-2004.
Niewiadomska A. Effect of carbendazim, imazetapir and thiram on nitrogenase activity, the number of microorganisms in soil and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2004; 13:403-410.
Wibawa W, Mohamad RB, Puteh AB, Omar D, Juraimi AS, Abdullah SA. Residual phytotoxicity effects of paraquat, glyphosate and glufosinateammonium herbicides in soils from field- treated plots. Inter. J. Agri. Bio. 2009;11:214-216.
Walkley A, Black IA. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining organic carbon in soil: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci.1934;63:251-263.
Somogyi M. Notes on sugar determination. J. Biol. Chem.1952;195:12-22.
Roberge MR. Methodology of soil enzyme measurement and extraction. In: Soil Enzymes Academic Press. London; 1978.
Ross DJ. Invertase and amylase activities as influenced by clay minerals, soil clay fractions and topsoil under grassland, Soil Biol. Biochem. 1983;15:287-293.
Ladd JN, Butler JHA. Short term assays of soil proteolytic enzymes activities using proteins and dipeptide derivatives as substrates, Soil Biol. Biochem. 1972;4:19-30.
Tabatabai MA, Bremner JM. Michaelis constants of soil enzymes, Soil Biol. Biochem. 1972;3(4):317-323.
Kelly WD kabana RR. Effects of potassium azide on soil microbial populations and enzymatic activities. Can J Microbiol. 1974; 21:565-570.
Nanniepieri P, Grego S, Ceccanti B. Ecological significance of the biological activity in soil, In JM Bollag and G Stotzky eds. Soil Biochem; 1990.
Alef K, Nannipieri P. Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, eds. San Diego; 1995.
Chikere CB, Ekwuabu CB. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in selected crude oil-impacted sites in Bodo, Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Afr J Environ Sci Biotechnol. 2014;8(6):401– 406.
Baboo M, Pasayat M, Samal A, Kujur M, Maharana JK, Pate AK. Effect of four herbicides on soil organic carbon, microbial biomass - C, enzyme activity and microbial populations in agricultural soil. IJREST. 2013;3(4):100-112.
Alharbi SA, Arunachalam C, Murugan AM, Wainwright M. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from terrestrial soil of Saudi Arabia. JFAE. 2012;10(2):1093-1097.
Lone AH, Raverkar KP, Pareek N. In-vitro effects of herbicides on soil microbial communities. The Bioscan. 2014;9(1):11-16.
Hanapi SZ, Awad HM, Ali SSI, Sarip SHM, Sarmidi MR, Aziz R. Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2013;9(1):60-67
Ayansina ADV, Oso BA. Effect of two commonly used herbicides on soil microflora at two different concentrations. Afr J Biotech. 2006;5(2):129-132.
Achuba IF. The effect of sub lethal concentrations of crude oil on the growth and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedlings. Environmentalist. 2006;26:17-20.
Milosevic N, Govedarica MM. Effect of herbicides on microbiological properties of soil, Proc. Natural Sci. Matica Srpska. 2002;102:5-21.
Lodhi A, Malik NN, Mahmood T, Azam F. Response of soil microflora, microbial biomass and some soil enzymes to baythroid (An insecticide). Pak J Biol Sci. 2000;3:868-871.
Maddela NR, Kadiyala V. Impact of pesticides combination on soil microorganisms. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;8:88-97.
Anigboro AA, Tonukari NJ. Effect of crude oil on invertase and amylase activities in cassava leaf extract and germinating cowpea seedlings. Asian J Biol Sci. 2008; 1:56-60.
Srinivasulu M, Rangaswamy V. Activities of invertase and cellulase as influenced by the application of tridemorph and captan to ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) soil. Afr J Biotech. 2006;5:175-180.
Subrahmanyam G, Archana G, Chamyal LS. Soil microbial activity and its relation to soil indigenous properties in semi-arid alluvial and estuarine soils of Mahi River Basin, Western India. Int J Soil Sci. 2011; 6(4):224 – 237.
Filimon MN, Voia SO, Popescu R, Dumitrescu G. The effect of some insecticides on soil microorganisms based on enzymatic and bacteriological analyses. Rom Biotech Lett. 2015;20(3):10439– 10447.
Rossel D, Tarradellas J, Bitton G, Morel JL. Use of enzymes in soil ecotoxicology: a case for dehydrogenase and hydrolytic enzymes. In: Tarradellas J, Bitton G, Rossel D (Eds.). Soil Ecotoxicology. CRC-Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. 1997; 179-206.
Vandana LJ, Rao PC, Padmaja G. Effect of herbicides and nutrient management on soil enzyme activity, J Rice Res. 2012;5:1-12.
Subhani A, Ayam ME, Huang C, Xu J. Effect of pesticides (herbicides) on soil microbial biomass: review, Pak J Biol Sci. 2000;3(5):705-709.
Zain MMM, Mohamad RB, Sijam K, Morshed MM, Awang Y. Effects of selected herbicides on soil microbial populations in oil palm plantation of Malaysia: a microcosom experiment, Afr J Microb Res. 2013;7(5):367-374.
Busse MD, Ratcliff AW, Shestak CJ, Powers RF. Glyphosate toxicity and the effects of long term vegetation control on soil microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem. 2001;33:1777-1789.
Chauhan AK, Das A, Kharkwal H, Kharkwal AC, Varma A. Impact of microorganisms on environment and health. In Chauhan AK, Varma A, (eds). Microbes: Health and environment. United Kingdom; 2006.
Das A, Prasad R, Bhatnagar K, Lavekar GS, Varma A. Synergism between medicinal plants and microbes. In Chauhan AK, Varma A, (eds). Microbes: Health and Environ. U.K; 2006.
Pampulha ME, Ferreira MA, Oliveira A. Effects of a phosphinothricin based herbicides on selected groups of soil microorganisms, J Basic Microb. 2007;47: 325-333.
Cycon M, Piotrowska-Seget Z. Effect of selected pesticides on soil microflora involved in organic matter and nitrogen transformations: pot experiment. Pol J Ecol. 2007;55:207-220.
Kunch F, Tichy P, Vancura V. 2,4-dichlorophexoxy acetic acid in the soil: mineralization and changes in the counts of bacteria decomposers, Versailles ed., INRA; 1985.
Taiwo LB, Oso BA. The influence of some pesticides on soil microbial flora in relation to changes in nutrient level, rock phosphate solubilization and P- release under laboratory condition. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 1997; 65:9-68.
Abstract View: 2170 times
PDF Download: 1092 times