Bacteriological Assessment of Soil Treated with Pesticide and Herbicide in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis of Kebbi State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Joseph A. Famubo
Bunmi B. Oladunjoye


The present study was carried out on the effect of pesticides on soil microorganisms at half (x0.5) recommended rate (x1.0), and one and a half (x1.5). One commonly used insecticide Sniper as pesticide and herbicide Glyphosate were used on some physicochemical parameters and microbial populations. The mean value of pH for Sniper (x0.5) was 7.0; Sniper (x1.0) was 6.9; Sniper (x1.5) was 6.8; Glyphosate (x0.5) was 6.9; Glyphosate (x1.0) was 6.8: Glyphosate (x1.5) was 6.8 and for control soil was 7.3 respectively. The conductivity was ranged with a mean of 308.1 mS for Sniper x0.5, 410.3 mS for Sniper x1.0, 388.1 mS for Sniper x1.5, 197.8 mS for Glyphosate x0.5, 117.4 mS for Glyphosate x1.0, 223.85 mS for Glyphosate and 185.7 mS for the control soil. The soil organic matter was taken immediately after the treatments, and after the four weeks of treatment, the values were 1.50 g at week 0 and 0.72 g at week 4 for Sniper x0.5; 1.35 g at week 0 and 0.42 g at week 4 for Sniper x1.0; 1.71 g at week 0 and 0.50 g at week 4 for Sniper x1.5; 1.21 g at week 0 and 0.75 g at week 4 for Glyphosate x0.5; 1.05 g at week 0 and 0.86 g at week 4 for Glyphosate x1.0; 1.67 g at week 0 and 1.01 g at week 4 for Glyphosate x1.5 and 1.90 g at week 0 and 1.45 g at week 4 for the control soil. A total of 8 bacteria species were identified, such as Bacillus spp (50%), Lactobacillus spp (8.3%), Proteus spp (5.6%), Staphylococcus spp (11.1%), Actinomycetes spp (8.3%), Micrococcus spp (2.8%), Pseudomonas spp (8.3%) and Flavobacterium spp (5.6%). The effect of these findings shows that pesticides might be affecting the soil microbial load by reducing it.

Insecticide, herbicide, soil contamination, soil degradation, micro-organisms.

Article Details

How to Cite
Famubo, J. A., & Oladunjoye, B. B. (2019). Bacteriological Assessment of Soil Treated with Pesticide and Herbicide in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis of Kebbi State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 4(4), 1-13.
Original Research Article


Monkiedje A, Ilori MO, Spiteller M. Soil quality changes resulting from the application of the fungicides mefenoxam and metalaxyl to a sandy loam soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2002;34:1939–1948.

EPPO. European and Mediterranean plant protection organization. Harmonized classification and coding of the uses of plant protection products; 2015.
(Retrieved 25 June, 2015)

García J. Introducción a los plaguicidas. Universidad Estatal a Distancia, San José, Costa Rica. 1997;450. Spanish.

Baxter J, Cummings SP. The degradation of the herbicide bromoxynil and its impact on bacterial diversity in a top soil. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2008;104:1605–1616.

Zhu G, et al. Microbial degradation of fipranil in clay loam soil. Water Air Soil Pollution. 2004;153:35-44.

Hafez HFH, Thiemann WHP. Persistence and biodegradation of diazinone and irnidacloprid in soil. Proc. XII Symp. Pest. Chem., Congress Centre Universita Cattolica, Via Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza. 2003;35-42.

Araujo ASF, Monteiro RTR, Abarkeli RB. Effect of glyphosate on the microbial activity of two Brazillian soils. Chemosphere. 2003;52:799-804.

Schuster E, Schronder D. Side-effects of sequentially-applied pesticides on non-target soil microorganisms: Field experiments. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1990;22:365-373.

Racke KD, Coasts CD. Pesticides in the soil microbial ecosystem in enhanced biodegradation of pesticides in environment (Racke, K.D and coasts, J.R. Eds). Symposium 198th of American Chem. Sept 10-15, 1989 ACS Washington, DC. 1990;1-12.

Pan-UK. Current pesticide spectrum, global use and major concerns; 2003.
(Retrieved 14 February, 2008)

Pimentel D. Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: Environmental impacts and ethics. J. Agric. Environ. Ethics. 1995;8:17–29.

Carriger JF, Rand GM, Gardinali PR, Perry WB, Tomkins MS, Ferrandez AM. Pesticides of potential ecological concern in sediments from South Florida canals: An ecological risk prioritization for aquatic anthropods. Soil Sed. Contam. 2006;15:21-45.

Andrea MM, Peres TB, Luchini LC, Pettinelli A. Jr. Impact of long-term pesticide application on some soil biological parameters. J. Environ. Sci. Health B. 2000;35:297–307.

Niewiadomska A. Effect of carbendazim, imazetapir and thiram onnitrogenase activity, the number of microorganisms in soil and yield of red clover (Trifolium pretense L). Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2004;13:403–410.

Ingram CW, Coyne MS, Williams DW. Effects of commercial diazinon and imidacloprid on microbial urease activity in soil. J. Environ. Qual. 2005;34:1573–1580.

Wang MC, Gong M, Zang HB, Hua XM, Yao J, Pang YJ, Yang YH. Effect of methamidophos and urea application on microbial communities in soils as determined by microbial biomass and community level physiological profiles. J. Environ. Sci. Health B. 2006;41:399–413.

Littlefield-Wyer JG, Brooks P, Katouli M. Application of biochemical fingerprinting and fatty acid methyl ester profiling to assess the effect of the pesticide Atradex on aquatic microbial communities. Environ. Pollut. 2008;153:393–400.

Laabs V, Wehrhan A, Pinto A, Dores E, Amelung W. Pesticide fate in tropical wetlands of Brazil: An aquatic microcosm study under semi-field conditions. Chemosphere. 2007;67:975–989.

Weberet JB, Wilkerson GG, Reinhardt CF. Calculating pesticide sorption coefficients (K sub(d)) using selected soil properties. Chemosphere. 2004;55:157–166.

Singh BK, Walker A. Microbial degradation of organophosphorus compounds. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 2006;30:428–471.

Schultz P, Urban NR. Effects of bacterial dynamics on organic matter decomposition and nutrient release from sediments: A modeling study. Ecol. Model. 2008;210:1–14.

Pampulha ME, Oliveira A. Impact of an herbicide combination of bromoxynil and prosulfuron on soil microorganisms. Curr. Microbiol. 2006;53:238–243.

Chen SK, Edwards CA, Subler S. Effect of fungicides benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil on soil microbial activity and nitrogen dynamics in laboratory incubations. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2001a;33:1971–1980.

Klose S, Ajwa HA. Enzymes activities in agricultural soils fumigated with methyl bromide alternatives. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2004;36:1625–1635.

Haney RL, Senseman SA, Hons FM, Zuberer DA. Effect of Glyphosate on soil microbial activity and biomass. Weed Sci. 2000;48:89–93.

Moorman TB, Bello. A review of pesticides effects in microorganisms and microbial processes related to soil fertility. Journal of Crop Production. 2000;2:14-23.

Helweg C, et al. Fate of pesticides in surface waters, laboratory and field experiments. Ministry of Environment, Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Pesticides Research No. 68; 2003.

Gunther AF, Gunther JD. Residues of pesticides and other contaminants in the total environment. Residue Reviews, 1st Edn., Springer, New York, ISBN-10: 978-0-387-05864-1; 1973.

Calvet R. Adsorption of organic chemicals in soils. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1989;83:145-177.

Mercadier C, Vega D, Bastide J. Iprodione degradation by isolated soil microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 1997;23:207–215.

Muller K, Magesan GN, Bolan NS. A critical review of the influence of effluent irrigation on the fate of pesticides in soil. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2007;120:93-116.