Physico-Chemical Properties of Water Yam and Cowpea Flour Blends for Production of Snacks

Main Article Content

J. O. Nwafor
A. N. Kanu
E. C. Kelechukwu
N. O. Nwohu
V. N. Ezebuiro


Aim: The aim of this study is to produce flour from different blend ratio of water yam and cowpea and determination of the physico chemical properties of the snacks produced from the flour blends.

Introduction: Snacks are something consumed occasionally for pleasure rather than for nutritive purpose. They are mainly produced by wheat flour. Wheat flour, the main ingredient for production of snacks are imported and thus, the cost of importation of wheat flour eat deep into the Nigeria economy and has placed a considerable burden on the foreign exchange reserve, in the long run causes increase in wheat products. Furthermore, over consumption of wheat products leads to celiac disease associated with immunological disease of the upper intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten containing cereals. Production of alternative flour to wheat flour can be a welcome idea. Cereal has high nutritional value and it has an appreciable protein content.

Study Design: The physico chemical analysis was carried out at the biochemistry laboratory of National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike.

Methodology: The water yam (Dioscorea alata) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flours were prepared and they were used for water yam/ cowpea blend at different ratio of (ie 100%:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50). The 100% water yam was the control sample. Functional properties and proximate composition of the samples were determined.

Results and Discussion: According to the result generated from the sensory evaluation, it was discovered that yam/ cowpea blend in the ration of 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 were more acceptable than the other samples. This can be related to the high content of cowpea in the samples.

Conclusion: The yam /cowpea blend in the concentration of 50; 50 was more preferred than the other samples by the panelist.  As a means of nutritional balance yam fortified with cowpea can boost the protein intake of population consuming yam as its main staple.

Water yam, cowpea, snacks, confectionaries

Article Details

How to Cite
Nwafor, J. O., Kanu, A. N., Kelechukwu, E. C., Nwohu, N. O., & Ezebuiro, V. N. (2020). Physico-Chemical Properties of Water Yam and Cowpea Flour Blends for Production of Snacks. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 6(3), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Adebowale AA, Sanni LO, Awonorin SO. Effects of texture modifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of dried fufu. Food Sci. Tech. Intl. 2005; 11(5):373- 382.

Onwuka GI, Ihuma C. Physicochemical composition and product behavior of flour and chips from two yam spp. (Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata). Res. J. Appl. Sci. 2007;2:35–38.

Hoover R. Composition, molecular structure and physicochemical properties of tuber and root starches. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2001;45:253-267.

Stephenson K, Amthor R, Mallowa S, Nungo R, Maziya-Dixon B, Gichuki S, Manary M. Consuming cassava as a staple food places children 2-5 years old at risk for inadequate protein intake, an observational study in Kenya and Nigeria. Nutrition Journal. 2010;9(1):9.

Ekariko P. Akara: The fast food with a painstaking preparation. Afrique. 2005; 16:14.

Akubor PI. Protein contents, physical and sensory properties of Nigerian snack foods (cake, chin-chin and puff-puff) prepared from cowpea - wheat flour blends. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2004;39:419–424.

Ugwu FM. The potentials of roots and tubers as wearing foods. Parkistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8:1701-1705.

Asare AT, Agbemafle R, Adukpo GE, Diabor E, Adamtey KA. Assessment of functional properties and Nutritional composition of some cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) genotype in Ghana. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 2013;8:465-469.

Odedeji JO, Oyeleke WA. Proximate, physicochemical and organoleptic properties of whole and dehulled cowpea seed flour (vigna unguiculata). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011;10:1175 – 1178.

Olu M, Ogunyele OAB, Adekoyeni OO, Jimoh O, Oluwajoba SO, Sobanwa MO. Rheological and functional properties of soy-pondo yam flour. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering. 2012;2:101–107.

Iwe MO. Hand book of sensory methods and analysis. Re -joint communication services limited Enugu; 2002.

AOAC. Official methods of aanalysis of A.O.A.C. international (18th ed). Washington, DC; 2005.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of A.O.A.C. international (17th ed). Washington, DC; 2000.

Onwuka G, Onwuka N. The effects of ripening on the functional properties of plantain and plantain based cake, International Journal of Food Properties. 2005;8(2):347-353

Amandikwa C. Proximate and functional properties of open air, solar and oven dried cocoyam flour. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. 2012; 15 (2): 988-994

Abbey BW, Ibeh G. Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, walp) flour. Journal of Food Science. 1988;53(6): 1775-1777.

Karuna D, Kulkarni DN, Ingle UM. Fractionation, solubility and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) proteins as affected by pH and/or salt concentration. Journal of Food Chemistry. 1996;82:207-212.

Ferreira ES, Amaral ALS, Demonte A, Zanelli CF, Capraro J, Duranti M, Neves, VA. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of rat-administered oral doses of the isolated 7S globulins from cowpeas and adzuki beans. Journal of Nutritional Science. 2015;4.

Kordylas JM. Processing and preservation of tropical and subtropical foods. Macmillan Publishers Ltd, London and Basingstoke. 1990;1-374

Iheokoronye A, Ngoddy P. Integrate food science and technology for the tropics. McMillan pub. Ltd. London; 1985.

Egounlety M, Aworh OC, Akingbala TO, Hooben AI, Nago MC. Nutritional and sensory evaluation of Tempe fortified maize based weaning foods. International Journal of food Sciences and Nutrition. 2002;53:15–27.

FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization, Food balance sheet; 2000.
(Accessed 19th July, 2002)

Shanthakumari VR, Mohan, John de Britto. Nutritional evaluation and germination of toxic principles in wild yam (Dioscorea spp). Tropical and Sub-tropical Agrosystems. 2008;8:319-325.

Sanni AI, Ohilude AA, Ibidapo OT. Biochemical composition of infant weaning food fabricated from fermented blends of cereal and soy beans. Food Chem. 2001;65:35–39.

Ragaee S, Abdel – Aal EM. Pasting properties of starch and protein in selected cereals and quality of their Food products. Food chem. 2006;95:9-18.

Baah FD, Maziya-Dixon B, Asiedu R, Oduro I, Ellis WO. Physicochemical and pasting characterisation of water yam (Dioscorea spp.) and relationship with eating quality of pounded yam. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2009; 7(2):107-112.

Walter WM, Truong VD, Wiesenborn DP, Carvajal P. (2000). Rheological and physico-chemical properties of starches from Moist and Dry-type Sweet potatoes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000;48:2937-2942.