Microbiological and Physicochemical Assessment of Sediment in Bodo Community, Rivers State, Niger Delta

Main Article Content

E. Eseosa Ediae
I. Cliff Ediae
U. Okon Edet
I. Ubi Bassey
E. Nkagafel Mbim
G. Elkanah Umoafia
V. Obi Ejelonu


Crude oil pollution is common place in the Niger Delta despite well known adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial biodiversities. Triplicate sediment samples were obtained from Bodo community in Ogoni Land, Niger Delta and made into a composite sample. The sample was then evaluated for physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), total heterotrophic bacteria (THBC), and fungi (THFC) using standards methodologies. Concentration profile of heavy metals was iron (Fe) > chromium (Cr) > zinc (Zn) > nickel (Ni) > vanadium (V) in decreasing order. Furthermore, the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, sulphate were 884.53, 12.32, 34.45, and 26.76 mg/kg, respectively. TPH and PAH concentrations were 30,797 and 52.12 mg/kg, respectively. Nitrate, iron, chromium, nickel, TPH, and PAH all failed to meet regulatory standards. TPH failed to meet Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) target and intervention values of 50 and 5,000 mg/kg, respectively. Total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi counts were observed to decrease with days of incubation in crude oil. The findings in the study reveal worrisome levels of TPH, PAH, iron, chromium, and nickel, and impact on microbial diversity. Thus, there is a need for periodic monitoring of sediments and water bodies in the Niger Delta.

Petroleum hydrocarbon, heavy metals, crude oil, Niger delta, sediment

Article Details

How to Cite
Ediae, E. E., Ediae, I. C., Edet, U. O., Bassey, I. U., Mbim, E. N., Umoafia, G. E., & Ejelonu, V. O. (2020). Microbiological and Physicochemical Assessment of Sediment in Bodo Community, Rivers State, Niger Delta. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 6(3), 26-32. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330152
Original Research Article


UNEP. Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland. International Standard Book Number 978-92-807-3130-9. 2011;1–25.

Udotong JIR, Udoudo UP, Udotong IR. Effects of oil and gas exploration and production activities on production and management of seafood in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2017;9(3): 20-42.

Chinedu E, Chukwuma KC. (Oil spillage and heavy metals toxicity risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Health Pollution. 2018;19:180905.

Edet UO, Edet BO. Heavy metal contamination profile of four selected seafood harvested on Itu River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Studies. 2014;4:1831-1835.

Edet UO, Antai SP, Brooks AA, Asitok AD. Evaluation of microbial diversity of epipellic and benthic sediment using cultural and metagenomics techniques. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology. 2018a;6(4):1-13.

Vincent-Akpu IJ, Tyler AN, Wilson C, Mackinnon G. Assessment of physico-chemical properties and metal contents of water and sediments of Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Toxicological and Environmental chemistry. 2015;97(2):135-144.

Inengite AK, Oforka NC, Osuji LC. Survey of heavy metals in sediments of Kolo creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2010;4(9):558-566.

Edet UO, Antai SP, Brooks AA, Asitok AD. An overview of cultural, molecular and metagenomics techniques in+ description of microbial diversity. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2017;7(2):1-19.

American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington, D.C; 2008.

Edet UO, Antai SP, Brooks AA, Asitok AD. Microbiological examination and physicochemical analysis of estuary water used as point of source drinking water. International Journal of pathogen research. 2018;1(1):1-13.

Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). Soil/Sediment target and intervention values for Mineral oil (or TPH), Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria, (EGASPIN). Lagos, Nigeria. 2002;2(1):1-415.

(FEPA). Federal Environmental Protection Agency. Guideline and standards for environmental pollution in Nigeria. FEPA Nigeria; 1991.

Marchant HK, Lavik G, Holtappels M, Kuypers MMM. T`he fate of nitrate in intertidal permeable sediments. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e104517.

Pfenning KS, McMahon PB. Effect of nitrate, organic carbon, and temperature on potential denitrification rates in nitrate-rich river bed sediments USGS Staff -- Published Research; 1996.


Wang L, Liang T. Distribution characteristics of phosphorus in the sediments and overlying water of Poyang Lake. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0125859.

Chindah AC, Braide AS, Sibeudu OC. Distribution of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in sediment and a crustacean (Shrimps: Penaeus notialis) From the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary, Niger Delta; 2004.

Shilag S, Pathak H, jaroli DP. Factors affecting the rate of biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. International Journal of Pure Applied Bioscience. 2014; 2(3):185-202.

Gastauer M, Patricia M, Vera O, de Souza KP, Pires ES, Alves R, Caldeira CF, Ramos SJ, Oliveira G. Data descriptor: A metagenomic survey of soil microbial communities along a rehabilitation chronosequence after iron ore mining. Scientific Data. 2019;6:19008.

Bassey IU, Brooks AA, Asikong BE, Andy IE.Environmental and public health aspects of solid waste management at the Lemna Dumpsite in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health. 2015;10(3): 1-13.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality. Third Edition, WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland; 2006.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality. WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland; 2004.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality. WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland; 2003.

Edet UO, Anika OC, Umoren E. Toxicity profile of crude oil on degrading bacterial isolates. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2019;7(10):1131-1135.