Evaluation of Phytochemical Contents, Proximate Nutritional Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves and Rhizome Extracts of Cyperus rotundus Linn. in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Ikon, Grace Michael
Etang, Ubong Ekerenam
Udoiko, Etima Micah
Ohagim, Ifunanya Promise

Abstract

Background: The leaves and rhizome extracts of Cyperus rotundus Linn. popularly called “Nut grass” in many Nigerian communities have been extensively used in local food preparation and in treatment purposes.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents, proximate nutritional composition and antimicrobial activity of the leaves and rhizome extracts of C. rotundus.

Methodology: The disease-free plant materials were collected from a farm in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Preparation of the plant material, methanolic and aqueous extracts; bacterial culture, isolation, microscopy and biochemical identification; phytochemical screening and proximate nutritional analysis were done according to standard methods, while screening for antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion technique.

Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds at varying amounts such as glycosides, tannins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, saponins and phlobatannins. The proximate nutritional and elemental analysis of C. rotundus extracts showed high presence of B-carotene (164.3 ± 0.02), Vitamin A (109.25 ± 0.01) and carbohydrate (59.0 ± 0.01) with moderate content of lipid (24.25 ± 0.02) and moisture (9.10 ± 0.01) as well as contents of some mineral elements such as Ca, K and P occurring in the range literature values in mg per 100 g dry weight of the plant sample. The methanol and aqueous extracts of C. rotundus showed varying diameter of zones of inhibition on the test organism. The observable inhibitory effect of the plant extracts on the test organism was more pronounced with methanol extracts as indicated by the diameter of zones of inhibition in mm in the order of 22.0>14.0>13.0 for P. mirabilis, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively compared to the aqueous extract.

Conclusion: The results of this study have shown the antimicrobial, therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves and rhizome extracts of C. rotundus. It could possibly find application as a good alternative antibacterial agent, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements.

Keywords:
Antimicrobial, Cyperus rotundus, methanol, minerals, phytochemicals

Article Details

How to Cite
Michael, I. G., Ekerenam, E. U., Micah, U. E., & Promise, O. I. (2020). Evaluation of Phytochemical Contents, Proximate Nutritional Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves and Rhizome Extracts of Cyperus rotundus Linn. in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 7(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i130159
Section
Original Research Article

References

Harborne JB, Baxter H, Moss GP. General introduction: Phytochemical dictionary a handbook of bioactive compounds from plants (2nd Ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. 1999;7.

Corvallis O. Phytochemicals. Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2017;1-5.

Himaja N, Anitha K, Joshna A, Pooja M. Review article on health benefits of Cyperus rotundus. Indian Journal of Drugs. 2014;2(4):136-141.

Peerzada AM, Ali HH, Naeem M, Latif AHB, Tanveer A. Cyperus rotundus L.: Traditionaluses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;174:540-560.

Kilani-Jaziri S, Bhouri W, Skandrani I, Limem I, Chekir-Ghedira L, Ghedira K. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antigenotoxic potentials of Cyperus rotundus extracts. South African Journal of Botany. 2011;77:767-776.

Karzan K, Shnawa B, Gorony S. Antimicrobial activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. extracts and phytochemical screening. Eurasian Journal of Science and Engineering. 2017;312:82.

Omeman A, Edrah SM, Belhaj SM, Alafid F. Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of leaves and roots of Cyperus rotundus. The Second Annual Conference on Theories and Applications of Basic and Biosciences. 2018;1-11.

Yeung HC. Handbook of Chinese herbs and formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles; 1985.

Sharma SK, Singh AP. Antimicrobial investigations on rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2011;3(3);427-431.

Sivapalan SR. Medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus Linn- A review. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 2013;3(5):1-8.

Bhouri W, Derbel S, Skandrani I, Boubaker J, Bouhlel IB, Sghaier M, Kilani SM, Mariotte A, Dijoux-Franca MG, Ghedira K, Chekir-Ghedira L. Study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the digallic acid isolated from Pistacia lentiscus fruits. Toxicology in vitro. 2010;24:509–515.

Wangila TP. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of Cyperus rotundus and Typha latifolia reeds plants from Lugari region of Western Kenya. Pharm Anal Chem. 2017;3:128.

Raut NA, Gaikwad NJ. Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:585–58.

Kilani S, Ben-Sghaier M, Limem I, Bouhlel I, Boubaker J, Bhouri W, Skandrani I, Neffatti A, Ben-Ammar R, Dijoux-Franca MG, Ghedira K, Chekir-Ghedira L. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the tubers infusion and extracts of Cyperus rotundus. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99(18): 9004-9008.

Ikan R. Natural products: A laboratory guide. Jerusalem: Israel: Israel University Press. International Archives of Applied Immunology. 1969;94:262-265.

Harbone JB. Phytochemical methods, a guide to modern techniques in plant analysis; 1973.

AOAC. Official method of analysis of the association of analytical chemists. Washington D.C. 2005;223-225.

Pearson D. The chemical analysis of foods, 7th Ed. Churchill Livingstone, London. 1976;572.

Oseni MO, Oseni A, Amoo IA. Studies on the physiochemical properties of oil, minerials and nutritional composition of nut of nut grass (Cyperus rotundus). American Journal of Food Technology. 2011;6(12).

Adeniyi BA, Odelola HA, Oso BA. Antimicrobial potentials of Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae). African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 1999;25:221-224.

Bado S, Bazongo P, Son G, Kyaw MT, Forster BP, Nielen S, Lykke AM, Ouedraogo A, Bassole IHN. Physicochemical characteristics and composition of three morphotypes of Cyperus esculentus tubers and tuber oils. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 2015;1:1-8.

Ekeanyanwu RC, Ononogbu CI. Nutritive value of Nigerian tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.). Agricultural Journal. 2010;5(5):297-302.

Glew RH, Glew RS, Chuang T. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2006;61(2):51-56.

Salman K, Ran JC, Dong UL, Yeong SK. Sesquiterpene derivatives isolated from Cyperus rotundus L., inflammatory signaling mediated by NFxB. Natural Product Sciences. 2011;17(3):250-225.

Okuda T, Ito H. Tannins of constant structure in medicinal and food plants hydrolysable tannins and polyphenols related to tannins. Molecules. 2011;16: 2191-2217.

Arumugam S, Vijisaral ED. Phytochemical screening of the various extracts of Cyperus rotundus. L. American Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2014;4(3):1-9.

Sundaram MS, Sivakumar T, Balamurugan G. Anti-inflammatory effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn leaves on acute and subacute inflammation in experimental rat models. Biomedicine. 2008;28:302-304.

Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Insulin-like activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000;48:849–852.

Lalitha TP, Jayanthi P. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2012;2(2): 115-122.

Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria. Global J. Pure Applied Sci. 2002;8:203-208.

Ibrahim J, Musa DA, Gbodi TA. Comparative nutritive evaluation of Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus nuts. Lapai Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences. 2016;1(1):24-28.

Kabbashi AS, Mohammed SEA, Almagboul AZ, Ahmed IF. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus L. American Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;2(1):13.

Brown D. Medicinal properties of Pleurotus species (oyster mushroom): A review. World Journal of Fungal and Plant Biology. 2012;3(1):1-12.

Ikon GM, Udobre EA, Etang UE, Ebana RU, Edet UO. Phytochemical screening, proximate composition and antibacterial activity of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus collected from Etim Ekpo in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;6(2):1-10.

Adejuyitan JA. Tigernut processing: Its food uses and health benefits. American Journal of Food Technology. 2011;6(3): 297-302.

Chiang LC, Chiang W, Liu MC, Lin CC. In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2003;52:194–198.

Rodriguez Vaquero MJ, Alberto MR, Manca de Nadra MC. Antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds from different wines. Food Control. 2007;18:93–101.

Haslam E. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: Possible modes of action. Journal of Natural Products. 1996;59:205–215.

De Bruyne T, Pieters L, Deelstra H, Vlietinck A. Condensed vegetable tannins: Biodiversity in structure and biological activities. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1999;27:445–459.