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Aims: To study the effects of ethanol stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on the hematological and histopathological parameters in Swiss albino rats infected with Salmonella typhi.
Study Design: Experimental design.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Between January, 2018 and June, 2018.
Methodology: Fresh stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea was collected, dried, powered, and extracted using 70% ethanol. Twenty – seven rats of the same age between 90 -120 g in weight were selected and divided into 9 groups containing three each. The infectivity dose (ID) was determined with the clinical S. typhi. The dose of the B. ferruginea stem bark extract (50-5000 mg/kg) used in this study was administered orally for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, the rats fasted overnight. Then blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological studies and thereafter sacrificed. Organs (liver and kidney) were excised for relative organ weight analysis and histopathological studies.
Results: The infectious dose (ID) of S. typhi on experimental rats in this study was 3.2x106cfu/ml. The weights of liver and kidney in all groups under observation slightly increases (treated with ciprofloxacin and ethanol extract) when compared to the control(uninfected) except for the infected/treated where the weight was significantly reduced. However, The Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) of rats treated with a higher dose of the ethanol (5000mg/ml) extract increased significantly (p<0.05) when compared to the control(uninfected) while the infected but not treated reduced significantly(p<0.05) when compared with the uninfected, infected and treated with Ciprofloxacin and extract groups. The infected and untreated group has the highest reduction in red blood cell counts(RBC) with 3.40 g/l respectively which were significantly different at p when compared to other treatment groups while a non-significant decrease was observed in the Red Blood Cell (RBC) of rats administered with various concentrations of ethanol extract and ciprofloxacin after treatment. White Blood Cells (WBC) of rats given the extract significantly reduced when compared with the control (un-infected) group while there was no significant difference in the lymphocyte count of rat administered the extract of B. ferruginea and ciprofloxacin. Neutrophils of rats in all groups significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the monocyte and eosinophil level were not significantly different from the control. There was dilation of sinusoids depletion separating the hepatic cord in place lined by kupffer cells and not necrosis with possible deposition of immunological materials observed in the liver of rats infected/treated with the extract at various concentrations. Similarly, there were loss of bowman capsule, severe karyolysis and several tubular drainages with possible deposition of immunological materials in the glomeruli basement of the kidney after treatment with the extract of B. ferruginea.
Conclusion: The stem bark ethanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea can be found relatively safe. However, excessive use might be toxic to the to the kidney and the liver.
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