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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Moringa, Neem, and Ginger plant extracts on the bacteria species isolated from fruit juice samples.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, between October 2019 and November 2019.
Methods: The fruit juice sample was prepared and cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB), Salmonella Shigella Agar (SSA), and Blood Agar using streak plate techniques. Four (4) bacteria species were isolated and identified from the fruit juice sample. These organisms served as the test isolates. Two (2) solvents (methanol and water) were used to get a comparative result. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial effects of the Moringa, Neem, and Ginger on the test organisms.
Results: The methanolic extract of Moringa, Neem and Ginger was found to exhibit high degrees of antibacterial activities against the test isolates. This was shown by the clear zones of inhibition produced by the methanolic extract on the test microorganisms. The highest in-vitro antibacterial activity is 16 mm, which was exhibited by the methanolic extract of Moringa at the highest concentration of 200 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. In comparison, the Methanolic extract exhibited no antibacterial activity (0.0 mm) at the lowest concentration of 50 mg/ml against all the test organisms. The minimum bactericidal concentration from this study revealed that methanolic and aqueous extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella species, Bacillus species, and Escherichia coli. However, the water extract of Moringa demonstrated more significant antibacterial activity on Shigella species, Bacillus species, and Escherichia coli with the range of 200 mg/ml each. In contrast, methanol extract of neem demonstrated antibacterial activity on Shigella species alone, with the range of 200 mg/ml each.
Conclusion: Moringa, Neem, and Ginger extract had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity when tested in vitro using methanolic and aqueous preparation of Moringa, Neem, and Ginger extract. Therefore, these plants may be used successfully for treating illness caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
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