Antimicrobial Activities of Moringa, Neem and Ginger Plant Extracts against Bacteria Associated with the Spoilage of Fruit Juice

Main Article Content

Chibuzo V. Nwokafor
Chukwuma G. Udensi
Henry N. Ogbonna
Chinedu E. Udekwu
Ugonna D. Nwankpa
Emmanuel K. Amanze
Wisdom N. Chibuzor
Kenechukwu C. Okeke

Abstract

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Moringa, Neem, and Ginger plant extracts on the bacteria species isolated from fruit juice samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, between October 2019 and November 2019.

Methods: The fruit juice sample was prepared and cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB), Salmonella Shigella Agar (SSA), and Blood Agar using streak plate techniques. Four (4) bacteria species were isolated and identified from the fruit juice sample. These organisms served as the test isolates. Two (2) solvents (methanol and water) were used to get a comparative result. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial effects of the Moringa, Neem, and Ginger on the test organisms.

Results: The methanolic extract of Moringa, Neem and Ginger was found to exhibit high degrees of antibacterial activities against the test isolates. This was shown by the clear zones of inhibition produced by the methanolic extract on the test microorganisms. The highest in-vitro antibacterial activity is 16 mm, which was exhibited by the methanolic extract of Moringa at the highest concentration of 200 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. In comparison, the Methanolic extract exhibited no antibacterial activity (0.0 mm) at the lowest concentration of 50 mg/ml against all the test organisms. The minimum bactericidal concentration from this study revealed that methanolic and aqueous extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella species, Bacillus species, and Escherichia coli. However, the water extract of Moringa demonstrated more significant antibacterial activity on Shigella species, Bacillus species, and Escherichia coli with the range of 200 mg/ml each. In contrast, methanol extract of neem demonstrated antibacterial activity on Shigella species alone, with the range of 200 mg/ml each.

Conclusion: Moringa, Neem, and Ginger extract had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity when tested in vitro using methanolic and aqueous preparation of Moringa, Neem, and Ginger extract. Therefore, these plants may be used successfully for treating illness caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords:
Antimicrobial, Moringa oleifera, neem, ginger, plant extract, fruit juice.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nwokafor, C. V., Udensi, C. G., Ogbonna, H. N., Udekwu, C. E., Nwankpa, U. D., Amanze, E. K., Chibuzor, W. N., & Okeke, K. C. (2020). Antimicrobial Activities of Moringa, Neem and Ginger Plant Extracts against Bacteria Associated with the Spoilage of Fruit Juice. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 7(4), 21-30. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i430179
Section
Original Research Article

References

Senjuti JD, Feroz F, Tahera J, Das KK, Noor R. Assessment of microbiological contamination and the in vitro demonstration of the antibacterial traits of the commonly available local fruit blend within Dhaka Metropolis. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2014;3(1):73-77.

Wargovich MJ. Anticancer properties of fruits and vegetables. Horticulture Science. 2010;35:573-575.

Chumber SK, Kaushik K, Savy S. Bacteriological analysis of street foods in Pune. Indian J Pub Health. 2007;51(2): 114-116.

Hannan A, Rehman R, Saleem S, Khan MU, Qamar MU, Azhar H. Microbiological analysis of ready-to-eat salads available at different outlets in Lahore, Pakistan. Inter Food Res J. 2014;21(5):1797-1800.

Hanson LA, Zahn EA, Wild SR, Döpfer D, Scott J, Stein S. Estimating global mortality from potentially foodborne diseases: An analysis using vital registration data. Pop Health Metr. 2012;10(5):33-67.

Jeddi MZ, Yunesian M, Gorji ME, Noori N, Pourmand MR, Khaniki GRJ. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets. J Health Popu Nutr. 2014; 32(3):100-210.

Aneja, Kamal & Dhiman, Romika & Aggarwal, Neeraj & Aneja, Ashish. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices. Inter J Micro. 2014;758942.

Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, et al. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lanc. 2012;340:28-33.

Ries AA, Vugia DJ, Beingolea L, Palacios AM, Vasquez E, Wells JG, et al. Serotype Newport infection linked to mango consumption: Impact of water-dip disinfestation technology. Clin Inf Dis. 2012;37:1585–1590.

Chomvarin C, Kotimanusvanij D, Rhompruk T. Study on the correlation between the enterotoxin producing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prepared food and cooks. Srinagarind Hospital Medical Journal. 2013;6:231-242.

Atribst AAL, Sant'Ana A, Massaguer P. Review: Microbiological quality and safety of fruit juicespast, present and future perspectives microbiology of fruit juices. Crit Rev Micro. 2009;35:310-39.

Walkling-Ribeiro M, Noci F, Cronin DA, Lyng JG, Morgan DJ. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a tropical fruit smoothie by a combination of heat and pulsed electric fields. J Food Sci. 2008;73:395–399.

Bassett J, McClure P. A risk assessment approach for fresh fruits. J Appl Micr. 2008; 104:925–943.

Tajkarimi M, Ibrahim S, Cliver DO. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Contr. 2010;21:1199-1218.

Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Punica granatum peel extracts. J. Food Sci. 2003;68:1473–1477.

Shan B, Cai Y, Brooks J, Corke H. The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extract. Int J food Mic. 2007;117:112-9.

Srinivasan D, Nathan S, Suresh T, Perumalsamy P. Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ehnopharm. 2001;74: 217-20. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00345-7

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practical in tropical countries. Cambridge University Press, Edinburg building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1IR, United Kingdom (Antimicrobial sensitivity testing). 2006;132-148.

Bergey DH, Holt JG. Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Vashist H, Sharma D, Gupta A. A review on commonly used biochemical tests for bacteria. Inno J Life Sci. 2013;1:1-7.

Peggy. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants. Afr J biochem. 2006;12(3):379-399.

Bohora A, Hegde V, Kokate S. Comparison of antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extract and 2% sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis, C. Albicans and mixed culture. Endo. 2010; 22:10-13.

Chris C, John G, Patricia L, Joseph F. Collins, and Lyne's Microbiological Methods (8th Edition). 2004;67-89.

Ekwenye UN, Elegalam NN. Antibacterial activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Int J Mol Med Adv Sci. 2005;1:411-416.

Singh G, Kapoor IPS, Singh P, De-Heluani CS, De-Lampasona MP, Catalan CAN. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food Chem Tox. 2008;46:3295-3302.

Andrews JM. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2001;48(6):5-16.

Aiyegoro OA, Akinpelu DA, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Antibacterial activities of crude stem bark extracts of Distemonathus benthamianus Baill. J Bio Sci. 2008;8(2): 356-361.

Onyeagba RA, Ugbogu OC, Okeke CU, Iroakasi O. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum linn), Ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia linn). Afri J Biotech. 2004;3(10):552-554.

Bezalwar PM, Gomashe AV, Gulhane PA. A quest of anti-acne potential of herbal medicines for the extermination of MDR Staphylococcus aureus. Inter. J Pharm. Sci. 2014;3(6):12-17.

Sinaga M, Ganesan K, Kumar S, Nair P, Banu SG. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity of bark and seeds of Ethiopian neem (Azadirachta indica a. juss). World J Pharm. and Pharm. Sci. 2016;5(4):1714-1723.

Owolabi AO, Abah KA, Oranusi S. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica leaf and stem bark extracts on selected clinical isolates. J Ind Res Tech. 2017;6(1):209-220.

Sivam GP, Lampe JW, Ulness B, Swanzy SR, Potter JD. Helicobacter pylori in vitro susceptibility to garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Nut. and Can. 2007;27: 118-121.

Shokrzadeh M, Ebadi AG. Antibacterial effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Staphylococcus. Pakistan J Bio. Sci. 2006; 9(8):1577-1579

Lanciotti R, Patrignani F, Bagnolini F, Guerzoni ME, Gardini F. Evaluation of diacetyl antimicrobial activity against E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Food Microbiology. 2013;20:557–543.

Laport MS, Santos OC, Muricy G. Marine sponges: Potential sources of new antimicrobial drugs. Cur Pharm Biotech. 2009;10:86-105.

Iwalokun BA, Ogunledun A, Ogbolu DO, Bamiro SB, Jimi-Omojola J. In vitro antimicrobial properties of aqueous garlic extract against multidrug- resistant bacteria and Candida species from Nigeria. J Med Food. 2004;7:327- 333.