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Background: As a result of the low immunosuppressive condition of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), they are at greater risk of Campylobacter infections but the use of antibiotics tends to reduce incidence. However, though this has reduced the incidence of the infection, there is likely development of antibiotic resistance with them thereby becoming asymptomatic carriers of drug resistant Campylobacter species.
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the faecal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter species isolated from HIV patients in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Methods: One Hundred stool samples were collected from HIV patients attending two Antiretroviral Clinics in Ibadan between February and March, 2017. Campylobacter species were isolated and identified using standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates to amikacin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefixime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, nalidixic acid and ertapenem was done using disk diffusion method.
Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter species in the stool samples of the HIV/AIDS patients was 68%. A total of one hundred and twenty isolates were identified as C. upsaliensis 32(26.7%), C. jejuni 30(25%), C. lari 23(19.2%), C. coli 20(16.7%), and C. fetus 15(12.5%). The antibiotics susceptibility pattern of these isolates showed that 97(80.8%), 88(73.3%), 82(68.3%), 9(7.5%), 9(7.5%) and 12 (10.8%) were resistant to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, cefixime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and ertapenem respectively. Moreover, 102 (85.0%) of the isolates were found to be multidrug resistant.
Conclusions: The faecal carriage and high prevalence of antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains among the HIV/AIDS patients therefore present them as asymptomatic carrier and reservoir for dissemination of the bacteria.
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