Antiplasmodial Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf in Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65

Main Article Content

E. O. Dada
R. O. Adebayo

Abstract

The study assessed the antiplasmodial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus on chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei in mice. Standard methods were used to determine the bioactive components of the leaf extract, acute toxicity test and antiplasmodial activity.  Mice obtained (of body weight 20-25 g) were housed and acclimatized for seven days at room temperature before the commencement of the experiment. A total of 16 albino mice were randomized into four groups of four mice each for acute toxicity while 35 were grouped into five groups of seven mice each for antiplasmodial activity. All the groups 1-5 were infected with P. berghei and were treated for six consecutive days with leaf extract dosage of 200, 400 and        800 mg/kg, standard antimalarial drug (chloroquine) as positive control and normal saline as negative control respectively.

Phytochemical screening/ bioactive compounds of the leaf extract reveals the presence of saponins (10.3 mg/g), tannins (2.38 mg/g), flavonoids (1.87 mg/g), terpenoids (19.12 mg/g), steroids (6.21 mg/g) and glycosides (19.9 mg/g) as secondary metabolites. The leaf extract revealed decrease in body weight of the infected mice and did not show any toxicity at all dosage levels used.

The antiplasmodial investigation revealed a decrease in percentage parasitaemia level in mice of extract treated groups compared with mice infected and not treated. The parasitaemia reduction was higher in 800 mg/kg than 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. This significant decrease (P<0.05) in percentage parasitaemia level in the study was dose and time-dependent. The extract showed significant (p<0.05) antiplasmodial activity and could serve as possible candidates for the development of new effective drugs for the treatment of malaria.

Keywords:
Cymbopogon citrates, in vivo, Plasmodium berghei, bioactive compounds, citral, lemon grass.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dada, E. O., & Adebayo, R. O. (2021). Antiplasmodial Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf in Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, 8(3), 27-38. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v8i330193
Section
Original Research Article

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