Main Article Content
The study assessed the antiplasmodial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus on chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei in mice. Standard methods were used to determine the bioactive components of the leaf extract, acute toxicity test and antiplasmodial activity. Mice obtained (of body weight 20-25 g) were housed and acclimatized for seven days at room temperature before the commencement of the experiment. A total of 16 albino mice were randomized into four groups of four mice each for acute toxicity while 35 were grouped into five groups of seven mice each for antiplasmodial activity. All the groups 1-5 were infected with P. berghei and were treated for six consecutive days with leaf extract dosage of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, standard antimalarial drug (chloroquine) as positive control and normal saline as negative control respectively.
Phytochemical screening/ bioactive compounds of the leaf extract reveals the presence of saponins (10.3 mg/g), tannins (2.38 mg/g), flavonoids (1.87 mg/g), terpenoids (19.12 mg/g), steroids (6.21 mg/g) and glycosides (19.9 mg/g) as secondary metabolites. The leaf extract revealed decrease in body weight of the infected mice and did not show any toxicity at all dosage levels used.
The antiplasmodial investigation revealed a decrease in percentage parasitaemia level in mice of extract treated groups compared with mice infected and not treated. The parasitaemia reduction was higher in 800 mg/kg than 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. This significant decrease (P<0.05) in percentage parasitaemia level in the study was dose and time-dependent. The extract showed significant (p<0.05) antiplasmodial activity and could serve as possible candidates for the development of new effective drugs for the treatment of malaria.
Iwuafor AA, Egwuatu CC, Nnachi AU, Akujobi CN, Ita IO, Ogban GI, Egwuatu TO. Malaria-related febrile illness and the use of insecticide-treated nets (INTs) for malaria control amongst under-5 year old children in Calabar, Nigeria. BMC Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2016;16: 151.
World malaria report. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Update. Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2018;3:43-51.
Arome D, Chinedu E, Fidelis SA. Comparative antiplasmodial evaluation of Cymbopogon citrates extracts in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine. 2016;2(1):29-35.
Aiyeloja AA, Bello OA. Ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria: A case study of Enugu state. Educational Research and Review. 2006;1(1):16-22.
Vazquez-Briones, Hernandez lR, Guerrero-Beltran JA. Journal of Food Research. 2015;4(3):36-45.
Zulfa Z, Chia CT, Rukayadi Y. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) extracts against selected foodborne pathogens. International Food Research Journal. 2016;23(3):1262-1267.
Christopher E Ekpenyong, Ernest E Akpan, Nyebuk E Daniel. Phytochemical constituents, therapeutic applicationsand toxicological profile of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (DC) leaf extract. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014;3(1):133-141.
Kpoviessi S, Bero J, Agbani P, Gbaguidi J, Kpadonou-Kpoviessi B, Sinsin B, Leclercq G. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;151: 652-659.
Brugger B, Martinez L, Plata-Rueda A, Castro A, Soares B, Wilcken M, Zanuncio J. Bioactivity of the cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) essential oils and its terpenoid constituents on the predatory buds, podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Sci. Rep. 2019;9(1):835-838.
Bagora B, Imael HN, Salwan M, Silvere B, Jacques S, Jean-Marc A. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils have cytotoxic effects on tumor cell cultures. Identification of citral as a newputative anti-proliferative molecule Biochimie. 2018;153:162-170.
Dada EO, Oloruntola DA. In vivo antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A gray against P. berghei NK 65 in infected swiss albino mice. Journal of Applied life Science International. 2016;8(3):1-8.10.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 14th ed. London: WB Saunders. 2005;357-8.
Acute oral toxicity – Acute toxic class method 423 adopted. (Guideline for Testing of Chemicals). 2001;1–14.
Ogundolie OO, Dada EO, Osho IB, Oloruntol DA. Effect of raw ethanolic seed extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum on heamatological parameters in swiss albino mice infected with P. berghei. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International. 2017; 12:1103-234.
Bankole AE, Adekunle AA, Sowemimo AA, Umebese CE, Abiodun O, Gbotosho GO. Phytochemical screening and in vivo antimalarial activity of extracts from three medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Nigeria. Parasitology Research. 2016; 115:299-305.
Kiliobas K. Antiplasmodial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Anacardium occidentale and Cymbopogon citratus; 2014.
Umar M, Mohammed IB, Oko JO, Tafinta OIY, Aliko AA, Jobbi DY. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial effect of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) obtained from Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2016;1(2):1-8.
Gebremickael A. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity evaluation of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil-water emulsion in mice. Journal of Cytology and Histology. 2017;8:459.
Ukpai OM, Amaechi EC. Evaluation of in vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Nigeria Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;24:27- 34.
Muhammed D, Dada EO, Muazu M, Jumbo EI, Uzokwe VI. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora in swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65. South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology. 2018;2(2):1-10.