South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-1989)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJRM/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology) (South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology) Sat, 17 Oct 2020 05:49:17 +0000 OJS 60 Prevalence of Some Opportunistic Infections (OIs) and Co-infections among HIV-Infected Persons in Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>HIV/AIDS continues to spread globally and remains a worldwide pandemic. Opportunistic infections (OIs) occur more and are severe in people living with HIV who have weakened immune systems, and co-infection is another major challenge because it affects the rate to which the disease progress to AIDS. In the present study, a total of 100 HIV positive patients were recruited and evaluated for the presence of common opportunistic infections (OIs) and co-infections among HIV-infected individuals in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Prime Medical Consultants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between June 2012 and July 2015.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals were recruited for this study (ages 1 to 70 years, 62 males and 38 females). Samples of blood, sputum, high vaginal swabs (HVS) and scrapped lesion from the mouth of the patients were collected. Blood samples were re-screened for the presence of HIV antibodies and HBsAg using the Determine HIV-1/2 (Alere), HIV ½ Stat-Pak (Chembio), HIV-1/2/P24/O ELISA kit and HBsAg one Ultra ELISA kit (Dia.Pro) following the respective manufacturer's instructions. The Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear microscopy method was used for identifying tuberculosis (TB). Microscopical examination was done on HVS samples and lesions scrapings from the mouth to observe for <em>Candida. </em>Chi-square test was used to establish relationships between demographic factors and prevalence, and significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 100 HIV positive patients, suspected case were 32.0% of TB, 28.0% of oral thrush and vaginosis, and 19.0% of hepatitis. The results of the laboratory analysis further showed that tuberculosis was the most common OI among others. Overall prevalence was 22.0% for TB, 11.0% for <em>Candida albicans</em> (oral thrush), 28.9% for <em>Candida albicans</em> (vaginosis) and 4.0% for HBV.&nbsp; Higher prevalence of TB was observed in the age groups 41 years &amp; above (35.7%, P=0.14) and in males (22.6%, P=0.86). As for <em>Candida albicans</em>, the higher prevalence was found in age groups 21-40 years (19.1%, P=0.03) and in females only (28.9%), and higher prevalence of HBV was found in age groups 41 years &amp; above (9.1%, P=0.78) and in females (5.3%, P=0.61). None of the variables (age and sex) evaluated in this study was statistically associated (P&gt;0.05) with TB, Candida and HBV prevalence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study has also shown that some opportunistic infections (candidiasis and Tuberculosis) and coinfections with HBV is prevalent among HIV infected individuals and this could largely be due to a compromised immune system as a result of the viral activities in the host cell. There is need therefore to routinely check for OIs and co-infections especially in the case of an immunocompromised individual. It is also imperative to note that the appropriate use of drugs against these OIs may be one of the strategies to extend the life span of AIDS patients. This will help to monitor how the disease progresses and its complications.</p> Iheanyi O. Okonko, Hope Onwusor, Amaka M. Awanye, Tochi I. Cookey, Charles C. Onoh, Sophia Adewuyi- Oseni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Fungal Microbiota of the Digestive Tract of the Chagas Disease Vectors Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 and Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, 1835 <p>Chagas is a neglected disease, one of Brazil’s main medical and social problems and a serious public health problem in the Americas, with more recent occurrences in non-endemic countries outside of the Americas. Research into the microbiota of triatomines is relevant because of its potential role in vector competence and as a proposed biological control strategy. Stressing a possible insect-fungal interaction in the development of <em>Trypanosoma</em><em> cruzi</em>, and considering the lack of studies on the subject, we analyzed the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of two species considered important vectors of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi: Triatoma infestans</em> and <em>Panstrongylus megistus</em>. Specimens were dissected, digestive tracts macerated and contents serially diluted. Each aliquot was seeded in three culture media. The plates were incubated in type B.O.D. climate chambers for 21 days, after which isolated colonies were morphological characterized and identified. There have been few published studies on the fungal microbiota of the triatomine digestive tract. Comparing the results found here with existing data reveals that the genera <em>Aspergillus</em> and <em>Penicillium </em>are commonly found in the digestive tract of the studied triatomines. Among the several genera identified, the species found in the highest percentages were <em>Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium waksmanii, Penicillium raistrickii </em>and<em> Penicillium fellutanum</em>. Quantitative differences in the number of isolated fungal strains were observed according to sex and nymphal stage of the vector. The present findings corroborate those found in the literature, showing that there is a natural fungal microbiota in triatomines. Data revealing quantitative differences in isolated fungal strains found in male, female and nymphs reinforce the idea that their presence is related to physiology and fasting resistance. The secondary metabolite-producing fungi isolated in this work have in their biology great potential to be tested with regard to the establishment of <em>T. cruzi</em> in the digestive tract of its vector.</p> Ingrid dos Santos da Silva, Mônica de França Guedelha, Cíntia Alves da Silva, Lara Cristina Santos, Angela Cristina Verissimo Junqueira, Aurea Maria Lage de Moraes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000