South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-1989)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJRM/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Microbiology. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology) (South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology) Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Biochemical and Serological Tests for People Recovering from COVID-19 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The purpose of this study was to detect some biological and serological factors in COVID-19 recovery patients, as well as their relationships with antibody levels 8 months after infection. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> 92 blood samples were obtained; 67 of them had COVID-19 infections 4 months prior, and 25 blood samples served as control samples. The participants' ages ranged from 17-75 year. Determination levels of immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out on (188) samples of infection over for ages ranging from 15-75 years by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay&nbsp; (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The people under research have 94.03% IgG and 55.22% IgM. Furthermore, the maximum concentration of IgG was seen after 6 months of infection. Aberrant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in 20 people at 41.6% after 4 months, in 25 people at 52.08% after 6 months, and in 8 people at 8.33% after 8 months. In contrast, aberrant C- reactive protein (CRP) levels were found in 10.4% of the participants after 4 to 8 months of infection and 12.5% after 6 months, with no significant association between them.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The maximum IgG level was reported 6 months after infection, and the LDH and CRP tests were abnormal 6 months later. On the other hand, 4 months after the infection, both urea and creatinine levels were abnormal, as was the IgG concentration.</p> Enass Waad Al-Hadidi, Mahmoud Abduljabbar Al-Tobji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence and Distribution of Enteric Bacteria in Meat and Meat Products in Mosul City <p>Food-borne diseases are the most serious international health issue, causing economic losses and health. The enteric bacteria are the most difficult bacterial contamination of raw and processed beef products worldwide. It is also the most prevalent type of food poisoning.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> The current study sought to determine the presence and distribution of enteric bacteria associated with various types of meat (red and white) and their fresh and frozen products.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> 36 meat samples were collected from local markets in Nineveh Governorate. The contamination of various meat samples with enteric bacteria was assessed. The bacteria were subsequently isolated and identified using culture, microscopy, and biochemical techniques. Vitek-2 device was used to verify the diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> All of the meats tested were contaminated with enteric bacteria to varied degrees. Fresh chicken meat had the highest rate of enteric bacterial infection, with a logarithm of 1.12*10<sup>8&nbsp; </sup>&nbsp;CFU/g. The frozen beef samples had the least contamination, with a logarithm of 7.4*10<sup>4</sup> CFU/g. The results revealed that 57 isolates from the intestine family bacteria included 13 species: <em>C. freundii, C. koseri, E. coli, Enterobacter</em> spp., <em>K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P</em>. <em>vulgaris, P. stuartii, S. paratyphi A, S. typhi, Shigella</em> spp., and <em>Y. enterocolitica.</em> <em>E. coli</em> was found in the most meat varieties analyzed, accounting for 19% of the total.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> Because it is evident that meat can be contaminated with a wide variety of hazardous bacteria, basic hygiene procedures help to decrease the amount of contaminated microbes.</p> Muhannad Ali Azzawi, Muhsin Ayoub Essa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 03 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Pilot Study of the Use of Picrorhiza kurroa in Patients with Malaria <p><strong>Background and Purpose</strong><strong>:</strong> Malaria is potentially a severe disease caused by infection of red blood cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria is an important cause of death, illness in children and pregnant women, especially in Africa The present study aimed to develop an alternative treatment that at may be effective and safe against <em>falciparum</em> &amp; <em>vivax</em> malaria and easily available locally and culturally acceptable. To confirms the claims of traditional herbal medicinal plants <em>Picrorhiza kurroa </em>was analyzed by using water and alcoholic extracts.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted on 45 subjects, 24 with aqueous extract and 21 with alcohol extract to assess the clinical efficacy of the medicinal plant <em>Picrorhiza kurroa </em>against malaria caused by <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> and <em>P. vivax</em> in Dera Ismail Khan. The roots of <em>P. kurroa</em> were extracted by a Soxhlet extractor using triple distilled water and ethanol as a solvent to obtain both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of <em>P. kurroa.</em> Both extracts are formulated in a capsule of 500 mg.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The efficacy was determined clinically and pathologically in patients from 14 to 50 years of both sexes, two capsules of 500 mg stat followed by one capsule twice daily for three days consecutively were given. After the treatment 44.44% of patients recovered, among them 85% (17/45) were male and 15% (3/45) were female. 44.44% efficacy of the drug is considered for further research on the same plant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that <em>P. kurroa </em>qualified as an active compound to undergo further investigation for its antimalarial activity and its active constituents should be investigated for better outcomes in the field of traditional medicines.</p> Shumaila Nargus, Faisal Aziz Sandeel, Saleem Rana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Current Issues on Monkeypox Disease in Nigeria <p>Monkeypox (MPXV) is a viral infectious disease, capable of transmitting from animals to humans. It is a zoonotic virus responsible for causing the disease, and belongs to the same family (orthopoxvirus) as the smallpox virus. The first case of human monkeypox infection was recorded in 1970 in a town called Basankusu, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. There have also been reports of the disease outbreak across West Africa. The first recorded monkeypox case outside Africa was in 2003 in the United States of America, which later developed to 70 cases without any mortality recorded. In Nigeria, the spread of monkeypox has been reported across the South-East and South-South regions of the country and disease has since been recorded in states such as Akwa Ibom, Abia, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Nasarawa, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The monkeypox virus has been identified as a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus <em>Orthopoxvirus,</em> of the family, Poxviridae with accompanying symptoms such as fever, severe headache, chills, swelling of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), back and muscle aches (myalgia), and exhaustions (asthenia) and eventually the appearance of rashes which develops through various stages before eventually falling off as the patients recovers and wounds heals. Animal-human Zoonotic transmission occurs through direct contact with the biological materials from infected host animal such as blood, mucosal lesions, bodily fluids, or cutaneous, through broken skin, mucous membranes, or respiratory airways of the nose, eyes, or the mouth, while human-to-human infection occurs through direct contact with the infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids, of an infected person. It also spreads through secretion from the respiratory tract through prolonged face to face or intimate contact with an infected person, contact with contaminated surfaces from infected host, or to a fetus via the placenta, or close contact with infected mother (congenital monkeypox). It can be diagnosed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) laboratory testing in combination with gene sequencing, and the infected patient treated using tecovirimat specific for smallpox virus, while studies are ongoing to develop its particular medication. This study is aimed at discussing the current issues on monkeypox virus with respect to the Nigerian society.</p> Rhoda Nwalozie, Ruhuoma Precious-Ogbueri, Felix Eedee Konne, Clement Ugochukwu Nyenke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Heavy Metal Pollution on the Biotic and Abiotic Components of the Environment <p>The environment comprises of biotic and abiotic components interacting as a system. The environment also contains organic and inorganic minerals in optimal concentration required by living organisms for growth, development, and metabolic activities. Due to anthropogenic activities and some natural occurrences, the availability of these elements has drastically increased in the ecosystem beyond the required threshold and permissible limits causing pollution. Heavy metal (HM) is one of the naturally occurring elements that threaten plant, animal, and human health. These HMs have been defined as elements with more than 5gcm<sup>-3</sup> relative density that are not readily biodegradable but can be transformed from one state to another and are usually associated with toxicity or ecotoxicity. However, some heavy metals are biologically essential elements required in the body/plant or as constituents of important enzymes although in trace amounts while others are non-essential and are ranked as priority metals due to their high level of toxicity with no biological importance even at low concentrations.&nbsp; The non-degradability property of heavy metals contributes to its persistence and subsequent accumulation in the biota and the food chain which is of public health significance to humans and animals. The soil environment is highly prone to HM contamination due to physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and biogeochemical processes that occur within the environment mostly mediated by microbes. These microbes are inarguably the drivers of ecosystem functioning, although they are significantly the most affected by HM pollution. This review, therefore, describes the ecotoxicological effect of heavy metals with special reference to the soil environment. Other sections discussed are the toxicity and general properties of some selected heavy metal, their role as environmental pollutants and essential elements. In addition, the effect of HM on soil microbes has also been analyzed in two folds: i) reduction in microbial population and diversity and ii) increased diversity and abundance of HM-resistant microbial strains which are significant in bioremediation studies&nbsp;</p> C. B. Ehis-Eriakha, S. E. Akemu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000