South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-1989)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJRM/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Microbiology. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalsajrm.com (South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology) contact@journalsajrm.com (South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology) Fri, 02 Feb 2024 07:58:34 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Emergence of High-Level Antibiotic Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: A Narrative Review https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/343 <p>In an era marked by remarkable advancements in medicine, the persistent emergence of high-level antibiotic resistance in <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> poses a critical threat to public health globally. As the worldwide spread of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pan-drug-resistant (PDR) <em>K. pneumoniae</em> strains continues to grow, a significant shift in how we approach treatment is on the horizon. The complex interaction of genetic factors, which encompasses a wide range of beta-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and chromosomal mutations, creates a dynamic resistance mechanism that counters the effects of antibiotics. These intricate adaptations, arising from both gene transfers facilitated by plasmids and changes in the genome itself, present a challenging obstacle to our efforts in managing antimicrobial effectiveness.<em> Klebsiella</em> infections come back stronger armed with molecular tactics that challenge healthcare systems, prolong hospital stays, and increase mortality. Beyond healthcare settings, the economic and social dimensions grow as resources are redirected, intensifying the impact on vulnerable groups. This review delves into the intricate mechanisms behind the high-level antibiotic resistance in <em>K. pneumoniae, </em>examining its epidemiological, molecular, and clinical facets. Highlighting the necessity for coordinated research, medical protocols, and policies, the review underscores the importance of judicious antibiotic utilization, drug innovation, and rigorous infection management.&nbsp;</p> Sona P. H., Pavan Chand Attavar , Rasmi T. R., M. Shashidhar Kotian , Delna N. S. Copyright (c) 2024 Sona et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/343 Fri, 02 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nasal Cavity of Medical Students at Shendi University, Sudan https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/344 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) is becoming ever more prevalent in Sudan, and the proportion of MRSA to methicillin-sensitive <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MSSA) seems to be increasing. New strains of MRSA are ever-developing resistance to antibiotic treatment, increasing morbidity and mortality rate.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To detect the prevalence of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in the nasal cavity of medical students at Shendi University and to detect variations of MRSA Colonization between student smokers and non-smoker students.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 60 swabs were collected from medical students of Shendi University, culture, and direct gram stain were done, then the plates were examined for any significant bacterial growth. The isolated bacteria were then identified by colonial morphology, indirect gram stain, and biochemical tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Of these, 66.7 % (40/60) were males. 33.3% (20/60) were females. The isolated organism was <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> 24 (40%), with no growth 36 (60%). The study showed that the overall resistance of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> to Methicillin was 21 (35%) and 3 (5%) Sensitive to Methicillin. Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> cases were found in nine (100%) of the students who smoked and twelve (80%) of the students who did not smoke. Of the pupils who did not smoke, three (20%) had <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Methicillin Sensitive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The carriage rate of S. aureus is consistent with similar studies. MRSA carriage in this university study appears high as compared to the general population. Although this study did not confirm a variety of risk factors for the carriage of MRSA previously identified by others, university healthcare personnel should be aware of the changing epidemiology of MRSA and the preventive measures needed to avoid outbreaks.</p> Leila Mohamed A. Abdelgader , Ali Mohammed S. Habiballuh , Azam Zaher A. Altoum , Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf , Nusaiba Abdelrahman M. Hakim , Tibyan Abd Almajed Altaher , Babbiker Mohammed Taher Gorish Copyright (c) 2024 Abdelgader et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/344 Sat, 03 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Beta-Lactam Resistance and Phenotypic Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase in Entero bacteriaceae Isolated from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/345 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Urinary tract infections can affect all individuals, regardless of gender and age, occupying a prominent place in nephrological pathology. The biggest problem is that a pathology with a wide range of antibiotics and other hygiene measures that can remedy it, remains so frequent with sometimes serious complications that can compromise the vital prognosis.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine antibiogram profile of enterobacteria in urinary infections.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study with an analytical aim of enterobacteria isolated from urinary infections from samples from patients of all ages from January 1, 2020 to October 21, 2022.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the isolated enterobacteria strains presented high rates of resistance, i.e. 92.61% for Ampicillin, 47.94% for cefadroxil, 45.14% for cefuroxime and 46.46% for cefotaxime, 72.86% for amoxicillin and 40.44% for amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Qualitative detection of extended spectrum Beta Lactamase was generally evaluated at 24.8% with peaks for Citrobacter sp, Klebsiella sp and E coli. For the latter, cross-resistance to quinolones was evaluated in proportions ranging from 49.45% to 85.51%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study shows that the level of resistance of enterobacteria to beta-lactams is very high. We have observed co-resistance between beta-lactams and quinolones, antibiotics commonly used against Gram-Negative bacteria. This observation requires an improvement in the antibiotic management policy.</p> Kasamba Ilunga Éric , Hichika Tshikolasoni Papy Copyright (c) 2024 Éric and Papy; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/345 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation, Identification, and Antibiogram of Colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from Rivers in and around Kathmandu Valley https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/346 <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Acinetobacter baumannii,</em> an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, poses an escalating threat in clinical settings due to the rise of multidrug-resistant infections. Despite its clinical significance, there exists a considerable gap in understanding its environmental dissemination.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> The primary objective is to examine the distribution of <em>A. baumannii</em> and its antibiotic resistance in river ecosystems. Specifically, we aim to identify strains resistant to Colistin, a last-resort antibiotic, and elucidate the susceptibility patterns to other antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Water samples from 10 rivers were collected and subjected to analysis using Leeds <em>Acinetobacter</em> Agar Base and a series of biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, focusing on Colistin resistance, was performed using standard procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 284 isolated strains, 14 (4.9%) exhibited resistance to Colistin, while demonstrating varying susceptibility patterns to other antibiotics. Notably, Gentamycin showed effectiveness against resistant strains (14.28%), while Ceftazidime resistance was complete. Colistin-sensitive strains displayed high susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin (84.44%) and lower susceptibility to Chloramphenicol (53.33%). Carbapenem susceptibility was observed across all isolates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study underscores a concerning environmental presence of multidrug-resistant <em>A. baumannii</em> in rivers around Kathmandu Valley, with Sundarijal being the exception. The findings emphasize the necessity of scrutinizing environmental reservoirs for pathogen spread, advocating for heightened awareness of potential health implications beyond clinical settings. Urgent attention is needed to comprehend and counteract the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, necessitating comprehensive strategies and continued surveillance</p> Pooja Lakhey , Shyam Prasad Pant , Pramila Parajuli Copyright (c) 2024 Lakhey et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/346 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mycological and Mycotoxicological Producing Potential of Isolates from Fermented Melon Seeds [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsun ‘Egusi kirikiri’] https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/347 <p>This study identified and examined fungal presumed producing mycotoxins in fermented melon seed condiment (ogiri). The samples were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar to identify fungi. The detection of mycotoxins in the fermented melon seeds samples was carried out by the use of Coconut Agar Media (CAM), by which the fungal isolates were cultured and plates incubated for 3-7days at 28<sup>0</sup>C. The mycobiota of fermented melon seed revealed of many species belonging to the <em>Aspergillus </em>spp<em>, </em><em>Penicillium </em>spp<em>, Cladosporium </em>spp, and<em> Rhizopus oryzae. </em>Among all the fungi identified in the study, <em>Aspergillus </em>spp has the highest prevalence rate (44.4%) while <em>Penicillium </em>spp<em>,</em> and<em> Rhizopus oryzae </em>have same value (22.2%).the lowest is <em>Cladosporium </em>spp with (11.1%)&nbsp; and its presence can be attributed to decaying of the samples. The results obtained show that some of the fungal isolates had the ability to produce mycotoxins. From the mycotoxin screening, only six (6) species (<em>Aspergillus spp, and Penicillium spp)</em> were positive (+),<em> Cladosporium </em><em>spp</em>, and<em> Rhizopus oryzae</em> were negative (-). Mycotoxin contamination level varied in different market locations in which Swali Market had the highest level of mycotoxin (50%) followed by Opolo Market (33.3%) and Tombia Market (16.7%). Mycotoxigenic producing fungi and mycotoxin levels in fermented melon seed samples are public health concern. Meanwhile, the occurrence of the pathogenic fungi (<em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Penicillium</em>, and <em>Rhizopus</em>) in fermented melon seed can affect its shelf life and can also cause severe health challenges.</p> Christiana Ngozi Opara, Awengi Alabere Copyright (c) 2024 Opara and Alabere; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajrm.com/index.php/SAJRM/article/view/347 Mon, 19 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000