Open Access Short Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Starter Culture-Fermented Condiments Made from Seeds of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon)

Fatimat O. Adebayo, Smart O. Obiekezie

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i1705

Aim: This study was conducted to assess fermented condiments that were made from watermelon seeds, using isolated organisms from traditional fermentation as starter-cultures.

Study Design: This is a laboratory-controlled experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Dept. of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria, between March and May 2017.

Methodology: Traditionally fermented (chance-inoculated) ‘ogiri’ condiment was made from sun-dried watermelon seeds. Microbiological isolation and identification were carried out using standard techniques, to obtain the participating organisms. Afterwards, sterilized packages of another batch of boiled, mashed and banana-leaf packaged seeds were aseptically inoculated with the pure isolates obtained earlier as starter cultures for a subsequent laboratory-controlled 3-day-fermentation process at 37°C in an incubator. All the different fermented products (produced by both uncontrolled and controlled fermentation) were subjected to proximate analysis. Also, the organoleptic quality attributes of the products were determined by conducting sensory evaluation on the various samples.

Results: The traditional fermentation of the watermelon seeds yielded an oily brownish paste, which has a strong characteristic pungent aroma. The participating organisms obtained from traditional fermentation were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium xerosis and Lactobacillus fermenti. The result of the proximate composition show that the moisture content of the samples ranges from 3.5% to 5.4%, protein content ranges from 13.4% to 21.1%, fat content ranges from 25.5% to 40.8%, carbohydrate content of the samples ranges from 29.4% to 49.5% and the ash (total minerals) content ranges from 4.5% to 6.5%. The result of sensory evaluation generally indicated that in terms of all organoleptic attributes assessed, the combined isolates fermented sample was most preferred by the panelists.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that a laboratory prepared watermelon seed ‘ogiri’ with starter cultures of Lactobacillus fermenti, Corynebacterium xerosis and/or Bacillus subtilis can yield an organoleptically acceptable and highly proteinous condiment.

Open Access Short Research Article

Production of Citric Acid by Trichoderma viride Isolated from Soil in Keffi, Nigeria Using Glucose Enhanced Substrates

I. K. Ekeleme, M. D. Makut, M. P. Adoga, P. A. Tsaku, I. H. Nkene, V. B. Oti

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i1737

Aim: This study was aimed at the production of citric acid by Trichoderma viride (T. viride) isolated from soil in keffi, Nigeria, using glucose enhanced substrate.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Microbiology Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences Nassarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria, between April and June 2017.

Methodology: Trichoderma viride was isolated from soil in Keffi and identified using standard microbiology methods. Two types of glucose production media were prepared by following standard fermentation conditions. The citric acid produced was estimated using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) method respectively.

Results: The maximum citric acid production of 12.03±0.31g/l was obtained at pH 6.0 with glucose with soybeans cake by T. viride and on sugar concentration of 160 g/l 15.17±3.01 g/l. The fermentation broth containing glucose and soy beans cake has the highest production of citric acid on both fermentation parameters tested respectively.

Conclusion: Different fermentation conditions such as pH and sugar concentration substrate enhanced on the production of citric acid. This study showed that pH 6.0 with glucose with soybeans cake has highest citric acid production and at sugar concentration of 160 g/l with glucose and soybeans cake produced the highest citric acid by T. viride.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abeokuta, Nigeria

O. A. Osinupebi, J. A. Osiyemi, A. M. Deji-Agboola, P. A. Akinduti, O. Ejilude, S. O. Makanjuola, N. O. Sunmola, E. O. Osiyemi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i1718

This study examined the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples of patients in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria using standard recommended procedures. A total of 338 clinical specimens of Pus, Aspirate, Ear and Wound swabs were collected from three major health facilities in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Each sample was cultured for bacteria isolates and examined for colonial and cellular morphology while biochemical identification was performed. Of the clinical samples collected, 50.3% were collected from male and highest rate of 37.9% was from age group 0-9 years and least rate of 7.6% was from age 10-19 and 40-49years. Only 32.9% samples were ear swabs, wound swabs (29.2%) and lowest rate of 16.8% for aspirate. Of the 161 Staphylococcus aureus (32.2%) isolated; there was no significant disparity found in relation to the study sites (c2=7.145, p-value = 0.308). The present study indicated a high prevalence rate of MRSA that require empirical and urgent intervention to prevent staphylococcal infection among the hospital patients and its outbreak.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Physicochemical Parameters and Seasonal Variations on the Occurrence of Keratinophilic Fungi of Murtala Amusement Park in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

U. I. Hamza, M. C. Emere, T. Bulus

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i1730

Keratinophilic fungi are the prime cause of various mycotic infections among children. Murtala Amusement Park is one of the preferred recreation grounds in Minna. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of fungal species at Murtala Amusement Park, Minna, with the goal of identifying keratinophilic species among them. A total of 360 soil samples from six different important sites in the Park were collected during dry and rainy seasons. A total of 542 isolates from eleven genera were identified; Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Mucor, Chrysosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Microsporum, and Rhizopus.  A total of 142 and 399 fungal isolates were isolated during dry and rainy seasons respectively. Out of the soil physicochemical parameters analyzed, only Ca and Mg showed significant correlation with a number of the fungal colony at 1 % and 5 % levels of significance respectively and it occurred during dry season. There was no association between the numbers of fungal isolates recorded across the two seasons. Maximum percentage of contribution was observed with Aspergillus niger in both seasons. While the minimum percentage of contribution was observed with Microsporum gypseum (1.40 %) and Paecilomyces variottii (2.51 %) during the rainy and dry seasons respectively. Simpson’s dominance of fungal species showed 10.86 and 9.84 for dry and rainy season respectively. Evenness of fungal species at dry and rainy seasons were 0.0759 and 0.0247 respectively. Diversity index of fungal species were 2.531 and 0.908 for Shannon’s Index and Simpson’s Index respectively. A very high incidence of keratinophilic fungi demonstrated in the soil of Murtala Amusement Park is a noteworthy finding for public health significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Filamentous Fungal Quality of a Bovine Abattoir and Associated Water Sources in Akure, Southwestern, Nigeria

O. O. Olusola-Makinde, D. J. Arotupin, F. C. Adetuyi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i1734

Aims: This study examined the prevalence of filamentous fungi in Onyearugbulem abattoir wastewater samples in Akure, Nigeria.

Methodology: The  abattoir’s water source, 5 m away from animal washings, the incinerator, 10 m upstream, 10 m downstream and 100 m downstream were sampled between November 2014 and October 2015 for aerobic and anaerobic fungal counts using standard recommended procedures. Fungal isolates were identified macroscopically and microscopically.

Results: The results showed that the water source had the lowest fungal count (1.4x103 sfu/ml in November and 2.0x102 sfu/ml in February for aerobic and anaerobic counts respectively) throughout the sampling period unlike the incinerator which had the highest fungal count (5.2x103 sfu/ml in August and 5.5x103 sfu/ml in July for aerobic and anaerobic counts respectively). The aerobic fungal count was lower than the anaerobic fungal count in all the six (6) sampling points except the abattoir water source. The trendline of the data collected also showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of the fungal counts in the wet season as compared to the dry season. The fungi isolated are Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Conclusion: This work indicated a high dominance of fungi in water bodies associated with the slaughterhouse and therefore warns against environmental and health hazards associated with these microorganisms.