Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Gellan Gum by Sphingomonas paucimobilis on Crude Sweet Whey Using Different Bioreactor Feeding Strategies

Rawia, F. Gamal, Hemmat, M. Abdel-hady, Shimaa, A. Amin, Shimaa, K. Ali

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i4815

Aims: Production of gellan gum by Sphingomoas paucimobilis from whey was optimized by different fermentation techniques.

Study Design: Study the growth behavior of Sphingomoas paucimobilis was cultivated on 40% sweet whey medium in the bioreactor as a batch, fed batch and continuous culture and effect of aeration and agitation speed on gellan production.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Dept., Fac. of Agriculture, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt, 2016/ 2017.

Methodology: Using Sphingomoas paucimobilis on sweet whey in the bioreactor as a batch, fed batch (pulsed & continuous) and continuous culture. Among the four levels of air saturation and four levels of agitation speeds.

Results: Using the continuous feeding of sugar sweet whey at 1.53 gl-1h-1during 12 h was favorable than pulsed feeding for gellan production in fed-batch culture. In continuous culture addition of                             40% SW at 0.055 h-1 dilution rate (110 ml h-1), the values of gellan parameters recorded by Sphingomoas paucimobilis were 24.34%, 26.54% & 0.337 gl-1h-1 for gellan yield, conversion coefficient and gellan productivity during 24 h. At 28ºC. This technique increments the gellan production (gl-1h-1) by 3.3 &  2.2-2.5 and 1.5- 1.6 fold as compared to that produced by using batch & fed- batch pulsed and fed-batch continuous techniques respectively. The emulsifying capability of the partially purified gellan was 100% whereas it was 95% for xanthan gum, as well as its high flocculating activity than xanthan. A tough worm-like gel or firm gel were formed when 10% calcium chloride solution or 0.5 g sodium chloride were added to gellan solution.

Conclusion: The maximum gellan yield and lower fermentation period were obtained with air saturation of 60% at 750 rpm agitation speed. The continuous feeding at 1.53 gl-1h-1 was favorable than pulsed feeding for gellan production in fed-batch culture, while the maximum gellan productivity was obtained by using a continuous culture technique at 0.055 h-1 dilution rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Presence of Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistant Transporter (Pfcrt) Drug-resistance Alleles in Some Northern Nigerian States

M. H. Ruqayyah, K. Nafisatu, B. Balarabe Musa

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i4822

This study was designed to investigate the presence of Pfcrt drug- resistance alleles (CQ resistant biomarker) and attempted to analyse the outcome in some states of northern Nigeria. A total of four hundred and thirteen (413) Plasmodium falciparum positive blood samples were collected from Kaduna, Jigawa, Katsina and Kebbi states during the period of April-August 2013. The samples were genotyped at codon 76 using specific primers for Pfcrt gene. The data was analysed using Chi-square to determine significance association. Four hundred and thirteen (413) P. falciparum positive samples were genotyped at codon 76 of pfcrt gene. Sixty eight 68(16.5%) samples contained single K76 (Chloroquine sensitive) alleles, 49(11.9%) contained 76T, while 16(3.9%) contained mixed K76T alleles. K76 alleles were highest in Kaduna state 17(32.1%) and lowest in Kebbi state 10(7.4%), 76T was highest in Jigawa state 11 (25.6%) and lowest in Kebbi state 7(5.2%) while K76T was highest in Jigawa state 5(11.5%) and lowest in Kebbi state 2(1.5%) with significant difference between the states P<0.05. K76 was higher among females 43(17.6%), 76T was also higher females 30(12.2%) while K76T was higher among males 7 (4.2%). K76 was higher among age group of 16-25 years 17(22.4%) and least among 26-40years age group 13 (13.5%). 76T was also higher among 26-40 years age group 17(17.7%) and least among age group >40 years 1(2.0%) and K76T was higher among age group 16-25 years 6(7.9%) and least in >40 years of age 1(2.0%) with high significant difference P<0.05 between the age groups. The results of this study genetically confirms the use of CQ for malaria treatment in the area and attributed the varied distribution across the states, to high irrigation activities, self medication leading to dosage non compliance and improper diagnosis due to use of low sensitive RDT in most government hospitals. The need for enlightenment of the populace cannot over emphasize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Assessment of Produced Water Using Microtox Rapid Bioassay

Chinyere Augusta Ajuzieogu, Lucky Obukowho Odokuma, Chikere, Chioma Blaise

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i4826

Aim: The study aimed at employing the Microtox test procedure in the current biological monitoring protocol as a reliable, rapid and ecologically relevant bioassay tool for toxicity assessment in environmental compliance monitoring of produced water discharges.

Study Design: Inhibition of bioluminescence by V. fischeri [median effective concentration (EC50)] was employed as the toxicity index.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department of Halden Laboratories, Port Harcourt, Nigeria / one month.

Methodology: Percent reduction in bioluminescence by V. fischeri after 15-min exposure to the PW samples was recorded as median effective concentration (EC50) values.

Results: The 15 min EC50 values of the untreated and treated produced water samples for V. fischeri was 1.0% and 23.27% respectively. Microtox test indicated the treated and untreated produced water samples were “very toxic” and “extremely toxic” respectively, after 15 min exposure time.

Conclusion: These findings emphasize the need for adequate treatment of produced water to meet standard discharge limits of regulatory agencies in Nigeria, as both physicochemical analysis and bioassay (Microtox) suggested that the treated PW was toxic to V. fischeri. This study thus supports the use of Microtox (bacterial toxicity) system as a sensitive and rapid bioassay tool for biological monitoring protocol in Nigeria's petroleum industry.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Potentials of Cow (Bos indicus) Based Bioenhancers in Increasing Crop Yield and Farmers Income as well as the Soil Health and Environmental Sustainability

Ashwani Kumar, Suman Baliyan, Akansha Kushwaha, Amit Panwar, Nidhi Pundir

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i4813

The haphazard use of the chemical fertilizers and pesticides has detrimental effects on soil health, human health, groundwater quality and environment. This will cause more dangerous consequences for future productivity. Present status of all food grain production is in enough quantity for the population of our country but there is need to enhance the quality of food production, quality of soil, quality of ground water and quality of a healthy environment for better livelihood. These qualities can be obtained by replacing toxic chemicals through natural and organic input which is more vital for present prospect and future outlook. The “Cow” occupies the highest place of honour in Indian civilization. She is supposed to fulfil all desires of human beings, hence known as “Kamdhenu”. Owing to ignorance, after stopping of milk production, they are left uncared for forced to live extensively and eat polythene and other wastes in towns and cities. It is interesting that in Indian agricultural systems “Cow” particularly those with a hump (indigenous breed) is one of the key components, hence provision of at least one cow per hectare need to be promoted for Jaivik Krishi activities in organic farming. This review paper attempts to bring together the different use of cow based organic formulations in crop production and protection. It has been reported that organic formulation in crop production is productive and sustainable, but there is a need for strong support to it in the form of manifestation of subsidies, agricultural extension services and intensive research with solid proofs. With these efforts we can fulfil the dream of our present government; to double the income of Indian farmers.

Open Access Review Article

An Over View of Feline Dermatophytosis

Wisal, G. Abdalla

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v1i4820

Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of hair and keratinized layers of the epidermis and is caused by keratinophilic and keratinolytic genera such as Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton. It is an endemic infection in many countries throughout the world affecting companion animals (dogs, cats), domestic animals (calves), and laboratory animals (rabbits) as well as humans. In cats M. canis is responsible for approximately 98% of the observed dermatophyte infections in indoor cats, whereas cats carrying T. mentagrophytes are usually hunters, indicating that the natural source of this species is either the soil or rodent prey.