Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts of Leaves and Seeds of Datura stramonium

O. O. Julius, V. O. Oluwasusi, M. F. Ibiyemi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v2i1830

Datura stramonium, known by the common name Jimson weed, belongs to nightshade family; its origin can be traced back to Mexico, it has also been grown in other regions including Nigeria. This plant possesses antimicrobial agents which aid in its efficacy for treatment of ailments. Hence, this study investigated the antibacterial activities and phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanol extract of leaves and seeds of Datura stramonium. Leaves and seeds of the plant sample were processed to obtain fractions of crude extracts which were used against bacterial isolates such as, E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening of the samples was also done to detect the presence of alkaloid, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, sterol and phenols. Results obtained showed the susceptibility pattern against the bacterial isolates at concentrations ranging from 0.5 – 2.5 mg/mL. The methanol extract of leaves of the plant sample showed high susceptibility pattern against E. coli and S. typhi. The study shows that crude extracts of leaves and seed of the plant sample were effective against the test organisms. The phytochemicals constituents were also present except sterol which is lacking in the seed sample due to the solvent used such as ethanol but may be present if other solvent is used. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of D. stramonium leaves and seeds were as a result of presence of phytochemical constituents because they are fundamental biomedicals, which are considered biologically to be active compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Property of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on Clinical and Typed Isolates of Escherichia coli

D. Muhammed, E. O. Dada, A. A. Alo

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v2i129234

The emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria, necessitated the discovery and development of alternative therapy to bacterial infections. This work assessed the inhibitory property of ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora against clinical isolate and E. coli ATCC 35218. Agar well diffusion test was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract on both isolates of E. coli. For both isolates, no zone of inhibition was observed at concentrations of the extract between 50-150 mg/ml, but at 200-500 mg/ml, there were significant (P>0.05) zones of inhibitions that ranged between 4.2 – 13.7 and 4.7 – 15.4 mm for clinical isolate and E. coli ATCC 35218 respectively. The susceptibility of both isolates to conventional antibiotics revealed ciprofloxacin (10 ug) having the highest inhibitions against both isolates (17.3 mm and 13.9 mm) respectively, followed by gentamycin (14.4 mm and 10.8 mm). The clinical isolate was resistant to amoxicillin (30 ug), while E. coli ATCC 35218 was susceptible (4.3 mm). The MIC of the extract for both isolates was 200 mg/ml while the MBCs were 300 and 350 mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the extract (15.4 mm and 13.7mm) at 500 mg/ml concentration is comparable with ciprofloxacin (17.3 mm and 13.9 mm) at a concentration of 10 µg, while that of Gentamycin at 30 µg (14.4 mm and 10.8 mm) is comparable with concentration of the extract at 450 mg/ml (13.7 mm and 11.3 mm). The zones of inhibitions produced by the extract increased with increasing concentrations. This study revealed the potency of E. citriodora ethanolic leaf extract as a future herbal candidate to treat infection caused by E. coli at high concentrations of the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Production of Biobutanol by Different Clostridium species Isolated from Soil Using Waste Paper and Sugar Cane Molasses

G. Owuna, M. D. Makut, I. K. Ekeleme, S. O. Obiekezie

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v2i129237

Butanol as fuel component has some advantages compared to ethanol. The Study was aimed at isolation of different types of Clostridium species from the soil and screening for their ability to produce bio-butanol. Soil samples were collected from three different areas in keffi. Clostridium species were isolated using Reinforce Clostridial media and identified using standard microbiological methods, mutation was induced in the Clostridium isolates and 16s rRNA identification technique was used to identify the isolates. Quantitative screening of the Clostridium species isolates capacity in bio-butanol was carried out using sugar cane molasses and waste paper substrate. The result of 16s rRNA of the Clostridium isolated from old barracks was C. acetobutylicium the one isolated from Angwan kwara was C. perfringenes and C. difficile was isolated from Angwan Jaba. Screening for bio-butanol producing ability of the clostridium isolates, shows that C. acetobutylicium produce highest bio-butanol before been exposed to UV light to induce mutation with 9.61± 0.94 mg/l using sugar cane molasses and 4.89± 0.19 mg/l using waste paper followed by C. perfringenes 6.24± 0.61 mg/l using molasses and 3.21±0.11 mg/l using waste paper. After exposing to UV light to induce mutation C. acetobutylicium produced 18.03 ± 0.17 mg/l using molasses and 8.63± 0.06 mg/l using waste paper substrate follow by C. perfringenes 14.19 ± 0.11 mg/l and 5.99 ± 0.31 mg/l. From this study it was observed that C. acetobutylicium has the capacity to produce bio-butanol and also inducing mutation will enhance the capacity of Clostridium species in the production of bio-butanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potency of Trona on Fungi Associated with Tinea Capitis from Children in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS)

M. K. Nata’ala, A. B. Mormoni, A. A. Isah, U. B. Ibrahim, S. A. Zauro, M. E. Halilu

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v2i129241

Aim: The potency of trona against fungi associated with dermatophytes isolated from children in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS) local farming community was investigated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Department of Pharmacognosy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria, between January 2017 and September 2017.

Methodology: The samples were collected from errand children within UDUS, and the organisms were isolated and identified microscopically using standard methods. Elemental analysis of the two types of trona (red and white) was also determined using standard Analytical methods. The sensitivity test was carried out using agar well diffusion method.

Results: In the two types of trona (red and white) Sodium was found to have the highest concentration of 9500 mg/kg and 8300 mg/kg, and the lowest was 0.15 and 0.10 mg/kg. Potassium was reported to have a concentration of 4400 mg/kg and 1800 mg/kg for the white and red trona respectively. Some of the organisms identified were Microsporum Canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes etc. Highest mean zone of inhibition of 20.7 and 23.3 mm was recorded for the red and white trona respectively. The least zone of inhibition recorded was 2.7 and 4.7 mm for the red and white trona respectively. Increased activity was recorded when the concentration of the trona was increased.

Conclusion: The results revealed promising potentials of trona in the treatment of fungi associated with dermatophytoses. However, further studies should be done to determine the mechanism of action of trona on these organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plackett-Burman and Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Oily Wastewater Bioremediation by Aspergillus sp.

Hazem T. Abd El-Hamid, Ahmed E. Al-Prol, Mohamed A. Hafiz

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2018/v2i129242

Plackett-Burman is beneficial design not only in determining the significant variables of bioremediation, but also in optimization of these variables. In this study, Plackett-Burman (PB) experimental model had been applied to assess the significant of some nutritional and environmental condition affecting oily wastewater bioremediation by Aspergillus niger. Eleven variables through twelve assays were planned, namely; Temperature, pH, sucrose, KH2PO4, NaCl, MgSO4, Na2HPO4, NH4Cl, NaNO3, urea and spore suspension to explain their effects on remediation of water contaminated with oil. The degradation process was enhanced based on oil and grease experiment. pH, sucrose, KH2PO4, NaCl, Na2HPO4 and urea were recognized as the positive factors that stimulate the degradation. On the other hand, other variables affected negatively on remediation process. The regression coefficient (R2 = 0.99) ensure the adequate integrity of the model. It was showed that sucrose (A), NaCl (B) and KH2PO4 (C) give high removal of oily wastewater when approaching to +1, on the other hand, the temperature (D) give high removal of oily wastewater when approaching to -1. (B) had positive effects on oily wastewater degradation, whereas C and D had negative effects. The factor with confidence level above 95% is considered as significant parameter. It was clear that variable B was the chief factor, while variables A, C, D, with levels below 95%, were considered insignificant.