Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) against Clinical Bacterial Isolates

Walla Fadel Mohammed, Bushra Hindi Saleh, Reem Naem Ibrahim, Mohammed Bdaiwy Hassan

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i230080

Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ginger extracts against some pathogenic bacteria responsible for Urinary tract infection.

Study Design:  A total of 35 samples were collected from patients with UTIs and wound infections.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at 2 hospitals in Baghdad from1/7/2017 to 1/9/2017

Methodology: The urine sample was collected using a sterile container, while a swap from the infected wound was also taken. The classical methods for diagnosis pathogenic bacteria in urine and wound are based on culture on different microbiological media including. Blood agar, nutrient agar, then incubated at 37°C for 24 hrs. The diagnostic procedures consisted of direct microscopy observation, Gram staining, Biochemical tests, Catalase and coagulase tests.

Results: Results show that 30.55%, 38.8%, 19.46% and 11.11% isolates gave typical morphological characteristics and biochemical test for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonae and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test reveals that Escherichia coli isolates were 100% sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, streptomycine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates reveal that 100% of them were sensitive to gentamicin, Imipenem, ampicillin and streptomycine. Staphylococcus aureus isolates reveal that 100% of them were sensitive to Gentamycine, tetracycline and streptomycine. Klebsiella pneumonae isolates reveal that 100% of them were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and Imipenem.  Ginger roots extract at high concentration (250,500 mg/ml) have strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonae).

Conclusion: This study has shown that ginger extracts possess medicinal properties, antibacterial activity and that the inhibition of bacterial growth was dose dependent. The results of the present study show that ginger extracts are more effective against all tested bacterial strains. The results of present study have provided the justification for therapeutic potential of ginger and also used as dietary supplement for food preservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Screening for Antibacterial Properties of the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera

Emad M. Abdallah

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i230081

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the male flowers of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm tree) against five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria.

Methods: Male flowers were collected and extracted by maceration using 80% methanol and the antibacterial activity was determined using cup-plate diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests.

Results: The methanol extract of male flowers of Phoenix dactylifera showed varying degrees of antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains, the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pneumonia which recorded 12.2±0.3 and 9.0±0.0 mm zone of inhibition (ZI), MIC values were 50 and 100 mg/ml, MBC values were 200 and ˂200 mg/ml, respectively. The most susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which recorded 10.0±0.0, 9.7±0.3 and 9.0±0.0 mm ZI, MIC values were 100 mg/ml and MBC values were 200 mg/ml, respectively.  Based on MBC/MIC ratio, the extract has some degree of bactericidal effect. However, the results were not competitive with the standard drug (Chloramphenicol).

Conclusion: As a result, the tested methanol extract of male flowers of date palm tree exhibited some degree of antibacterial activity with a bactericidal property. More future studies such as fractionation process are required to isolate and investigate its bioactive compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Case of Qnr B6 and Qnr B7 Genes in Enterobacteriaceae Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire

Gadou Victoire, Toty Abalé Anatole, Konan Fernique, Tiékoura Konan Bertin, Ouattara Mohamed Baguy, Guessennd Kouadio Nathalie, Djaman Allico Joseph

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i230082

Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize fluoroquinolone resistance genes in enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, isolated in Abidjan.

Place and Duration of Study: Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire and research unit on emerging tropical infectious diseases of Aix-Marseille University from January 2017 at July 2017.

Methodology: The study included 90 enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases isolated from biological products from various hospital services in Abidjan. These strains have been pre-identified and stored at the Center for Biological Resources (CeReB) of Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire. The identification of the strains was confirmed using the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF (MS) and the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed using Müeller Hinton's agar diffusion method. The fluoroquinolone resistant genes were detected by conventional PCR and then, sequenced.

Results: The strains studied were Escherichia coli (44), Klebsiella pneumoniae (31) and Enterobacter cloacae (15). High resistance rates to ceftriaxone (96.7%), cefotaxime (95.6%), aztreonam (95.6%) and cefoxitin (72.2%) were observed in all strains producing broad spectrum β-lactamases. The resistance rate to fluororquinolones represented by ciprofloxacin was 86.7%. The fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were qnr A (3.3%) and qnr B (42.2%). Sequencing identified the qnr A1 (3.3%), qnr B1 (31.1%), qnr B6 (2.2%) and qnr B7 (1.1%) genes.

Conclusion: This study made it possible to identify fluoroquinolone resistance genes in enterobacteriaceae producing β-lactamases which have an extended spectrum in Abidjan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effects of Honey in Nigeria on Selected Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Justinah F. John-Isa, Tinuola T. Adebolu, Victor O. Oyetayo

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i230083

Aims: This study is geared to evaluating honey as an alternative of conventional antibiotics to treat infections caused by the selected diarrhoeagenic bacteria.

Place and duration of Study: Research laboratory of Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria between December 2017 to May 2018. 

Methodology: Honey samples from ten (10) different locations in Nigeria were screened for possible antibacterial activity on both the clinical and typed cultures of the selected diarrhoeagenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method. Conventional antibiotics were used as control. Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using XL-Start, 2016 version.

Results: All the honey samples used exerted growth inhibitory activity on all the test bacteria including the ones that were resistant to the conventional antibiotics (Ofloxacin and augmentin) used as control. In some cases, the growth inhibitions mediated by the honey samples were superior to that of the conventional antibiotics.

Conclusion: This study showed that honey has antibacterial activity against the selected bacteria and therefore can be exploited as an alternative to conventional antibiotics to treat infections caused by the selected diarrhoeagenic bacteria especially the ones that were resistant to conventional antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effect of Goya Extra Virgin Olive Oil in Albino Rat Orogastricallly Dosed with Salmonella typhi

P. O. Gabriel, J. O. Aribisala, M. K. Oladunmoye, A. O. Arogunjo, O. B. Ajayi-Moses

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i230084

The therapeutic properties of Goya extra virgin olive oil in albino rats orogastrically dosed with Salmonella Typhi were accessed in this study. Both the in- vivo and in- vitro assays were used in assessing the antimicrobial activity of Goya extra virgin olive oil. Thirteen microorganisms including eight bacteria and five fungi were used in the in- vitro bioassay. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of olive oil and commercial antibiotics revealed ofloxacin, gentamicin as well as the olive oil to be potent against the test organisms. The in- vivo bioassay were carried out using twenty albino rats randomly assigned into four study groups of five rats per group. The groups orogastricallly dosed with Salmonella typhi revealed that the animals showed depressed activity and weakness such as slow movement, anorexia, falling fur and rough hair coat, light soft faeces, ocular discharge and loss of weight. Following separate treatments of the rats with antibiotic (Ofloxacin) as well as Olive oil, all the characteristic symptoms of the disease decreased with time. The treated animals gained more appetite for food and water as evidenced by an increase in their weight. The average weights gained by the rats treated with Goya extra virgin olive oil were found to be higher than the weights of the untreated animals. Thus, revealing that Goya extra virgin olive oil has an antibacterial effect as does, antibiotics in the treatment of S. typhi induced disease. The control group had a fairly constant colonial count per gram (106cfu/g) of animal faeces which ranged from 1.52 ± 0.01 to 1.70 ± 0.01. There was a sharp decrease in the bacterial colony count of the faeces of the animals treated with antibiotic from 3.22 ± 0.06 to 1.70 ± 0.01 when compared to those fed with olive oil which decreased from 3.00 ± 0.00 to 2.9 ± 0.03. This confirms that the elimination rate of the bacteria in the host is as a result of the antibacterial activity of the olive oil and the antibiotics respectively. Olive oil is a natural antimicrobial and a non- toxic immune modulator, it is an amazing health building supplement which stimulates the immune system to fight against infection. Hence, results from this study have justified the use of olive oil as a natural antimicrobial and a non- toxic immune modulator (since the total phenol content present in Goya extra virgin olive oil was shown to be 14.90). Phenols are the major groups of compounds revealed to contribute to the observed inhibitory effect of olive oil. Also, the result of the mineral analysis of the Goya extra virgin olive oil showed Goya extra virgin olive oil not to have any traces of lead. Presence of lead may lead to poisoning and can cause a number of adverse human health effect. Hence, Olive oil has a significant non- toxic health building supplements which has a therapeutic effect on Salmonella typhi induced infection.