Open Access Minireview Article

An Over View of Dermatophytosis in Rabbits

Wisal, G. Abdalla

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i330089

Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection of the skin caused by dermatophytes-filamentous fungi which have ability to invade the epidermis and keratinized structure derived from it such as hair or nails. Rabbits are one of dermatophytes host; young rabbit below 12 months of age were more frequently affected with the disease. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophytes isolated species. The disease can be diagnosed by direct examination, fungal culture, skin biopsy sero and molecular diagnosis methods. This overview forecast more light of the different aspects of this disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Samples in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto

N. M. Bunza, A. A. Isah, M. D. Hafsat, U. I. Asiya

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i330085

Aim: The study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against some conventional antibiotics.

Study Design: Hospital based cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria, between June 2018 and September 2018.

Methodology: One hundred (100) Staphylococcus aureus isolates were used in this study. Gram’s staining, catalase, coagulase and mannitol fermentation tests were used to identify and confirm the isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disc agar diffusion test.

Results: In the present study 63.0% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were from male subjects, while 37.0% were from female subjects. The age group with the highest number of isolates was 11-20 years (37%) and the least (9%) was seen in 41-50 years. Subjects with urine samples had the highest frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolates with 32.0% and those with high vaginal swab had the lowest 6.0%. The antibiotics susceptibility testing showed that 40% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to Clindamycin, 64% to Ciprofloxacin, 57% to Erythromycin, 71% to Gentamicin, 34% to Cefoxitin, 46% to Quinupristin/Dalfopristin, 58% to Tetracycline and Sulphamethaxazole –Trimethoprim respectively. Screening for MRSA was carried out by antibiotic sensitivity testing using cefoxitin and a prevalence of 66% was obtained. This study showed that Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin were the most active antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

Conclusion: There is the need for consistent on-going antimicrobial resistance surveillance for important and commonly isolated clinically significant pathogens of staphylococcal species to form the basis for developing and implementing measures that can reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance and prevent a probable impending public health problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-aging Activity of Xylaria striata in Drosophila melanogaster

Shi-Jun Yuan, Wei-Yi Li, Tian-Tian Jian, Yi Huang

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i330086

Aims: To evaluate the application potential of Xylaria striata Pat. in anti-aging field.

Methodology: Extracting the fruit body of X. striata by ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was used as an anti-aging organism material. After feeding with different concentrations of extract, the natural survival time, survival time under oxidative stress and survival time under UV irradiation of D. melanogaster were all measured. In addition, the in vivo activity of SOD、CAT and MAD, protein concentration and body weight were determined to evaluate the anti-aging effect of ethanol extract from X. striata.

Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract of X. striata could extend the lifespan of D. melanogaster under both irradiation and oxidative stress condition. And the ethanol extract could enhance the activity of CAT in D. melanogaster, especially at concentration of 50 μM, and the content of MAD in D. melanogaster were decreased significantly.

Conclusion: This study clarified the anti-aging activity of X. striata in D. melanogaster and  it would provide some theoretical basis for its further development and utilization in anti-aging drugs and health food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Raphia Palm Wine (Raffia mambillensis)

Quentin Metsatedem Tongwa, Linda Manet, Hippolyte Tene Mouafo, Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i330087

Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from raphia palm wine (Raffia mambillensis O.) of the South West region of Cameroon.

Study Design: The study site and sample were randomly chosen and the responses assessed were submitted to analyses of variance.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Ekona in the South West region of Cameroon, between February 2017 and October 2018.

Methodology: Physicochemical analyses were performed to characterize the Raphia palm wine samples. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from these samples using pour plate method, and the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity, low pH and bile salts tolerance, antibiotic sensitivity, hemolytic activity and enzymes production. The active isolates were identified phenotypically using API 50 CHL.

Results: The results revealed that among the nine isolates, only three were active against Escherichia coli BL21, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition diameters ranging from 10 to 25 mm. The three isolates which exhibited antimicrobial activity were able to survive at simulated stomach pH (pH 3.0) with survival rate above 80% and in the presence of bile salts at 1% with survival rates above 50%. All three isolates gave negative results for hemolytic activity and were resistant to most antibiotic treatments. These three isolates produced β-galactosidase, which is beneficial for lactose intolerance. They also produced some non-carcinogenic enzymes including leucine arylamidase, crystine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, α-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosamidase. Identification of these three isolates with API kit 50 CHL reveals that they are Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that raphia palm wine can be an excellent source of
probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Antibacterial Profile of Brysocarpus coccineus and Zanthoxylum piperitum

Ezeh, Chukwuemeka C., Dibua, Uju M., Ndefor, Joseph C., Udoye, C. C.

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i330088

The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial profile of Brysocarpus coccineus and Zanthoxylum piperitum in Nigeria. The antibacterial efficacy of methanolic leaf extracts of Brysocarpus coccineus and Zanthoxylum piperitum was determined against six clinical isolates and three typed cultures respectively. The percentage yield of the extracts was calculated, and it showed 5.6% for Brysocarpus coccineus and 4% for Zanthoxylum piperitum. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the two extracts showed the presence of saponins, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids and resin. The extracts effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis at different concentrations. The extract of B. coccineus inhibited S. aureus, K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa at different concentration, while that of Z. piperitum inhibited S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at different concentration. B. coccineus extract had its MIC at 6.25 mg/ml against clinical isolate of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Z. piperitum methanolic extract had its MIC at 6.25 mg/ml against clinical isolate Bacillus subtilis. All the plants extract had no activity against Salmonella typhi, and B. coccineus had no activity against Klebsiella pneumonia. The results of statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the B. coccineus showed that F-cal. is greater than F-tab. This means there is a significant difference in the activity of the extract, while that of Z. piperitum showed that F-cal is less than F-tab. meaning there is no significant difference in the activity of the extract. This reveals the importance of leaf extracts of B. coccineus and Z. piperitum in the control of resistant microbial strains.