Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Occurrence of Multidrug Resistance Escherichia coli and Other Bacteria Species Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Geopolitical Zones of Ondo State, Nigeria

Titilayo Modupe Waire, Timothy Olubisi Adejumo, Festus Abiose Olajubu

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i430090

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection known to affect different parts of the urinary tract of both male and female. Escherichia coli has been found to be responsible for causing 80% to 90% of the infection. An investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of bacteria, especially E. coli implicated in UTI, and to ascertain their antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected from 250 patients aged 18 to 60 years, between March and July of 2016 from 5 major Hospitals in the study location. The isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and susceptibility tests were carried out using ten antibiotics. Results showed that 65(30.7%) of the isolates were E. coli. Followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 45(21.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 42(19.8%), Staphylococcus aureus 32(15.1%) and Proteus mirabilis 28(13.2%). The percentages of resistance of E. coli isolates to antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (64.9%), sparfloxacin (59.5%), ciprofloxacin (73.0%), septrin (73.0%), amoxacillin (91.9%), augmentin (83.8%), gentamycin (48.7%), perfloxacin (40.5%), ofloxacin (40.5%) and streptomycin (54.1%). The need for constant antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance by health managements system that will help clinicians to provide safe and effective therapy is advocated.

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 10th July 2019. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kunun-Zaki on Selected Clinical Pathogens

S. Amuche Evurani, A. Godwin, N. Ugwu Charity, C. Eze Chinelo, G. Okafor

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i430091

Aims: To investigate the anti-microbial activity of lactic acid bacterial isolates from locally fermented Kunun-zaki beverage.

Study Design:  The study was designed to study the anti-microbial effect of lactic acid bacterial isolates obtained from Kunun-zaki beverage.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, June 2009 and January 2010.

Methodology: Fresh Kunun drink was prepared from millet following standard modified procedures. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from the beverage sample was carried out using MRS agar medium. Morphological and biochemical characterizations were performed to identify the organisms. Finally, the bacterial isolates were tested for antibacterial activity against clinical pathogens – Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus obtained from Microbiology Department Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Nigeria.

Results: Morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed the presence of Gram’s positive bacteria which were identified as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus brevis. The antimicrobial activity of the isolates (L. casei and L. brevis) against various pathogenic strains recorded 90±0.002% inhibition. Only Micrococcus luteus was absolutely resistant to antimicrobial treatments with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus brevis

Conclusion: The study concluded that Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus casei from kunun-zaki drink possess strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of clinical pathogens. Since lactic acid bacteria are known to possess many health benefits, some of the therapeutic effects reported from the consumption of the beverage may be attributed to these organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Analysis of Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava Stems on Bacteria Associated with Dental Caries

M. K. Nata’ala, A. Y. Fardami, M. H. Dalhat, K. Sirajo, I. Bashiru, M. H. Usman, I. Mas’ud

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i430092

Background: Chewing stick has long been used in many parts of Africa and the Middle East as a means of oral hygiene. Dry stems or Roots of different plants have been used in the process. Stems of Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava are among the commonly used plants in Nigeria in cleansing teeth. Few attempts have been made to screen the antimicrobial activity of the stems of the trees on microorganisms isolated from teeth.

Aim of the Study: The aim was to determine the Phytoconstituents and the antimicrobial activity of Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on Bacteria isolated from human teeth.

Materials and Methods: Phytoconstituents of the aqueous and ethanolic extract of the stems of Bitter leaf and Guava tree were determined using standard methods. The antimicrobial activity of the extract against some microorganisms isolated from teeth was determined using agar well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined using standard methods.

Results: Phytochemical screening of stems of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and carbohydrates. Highest zone of inhibition of 9 mm and 10 mm was recorded on the ethanolic extracts of bitter leaf and Guava tree stems on Staphylococcus aureus respectively. MIC and MBC of 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml for the ethanolic extracts of Bitter leaf stem on Klebsiella pneumonia, S. aureus and Proteus mirabilis were recorded. For the Guava, MIC and MBC of 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml were recorded for the ethanolic extracts were recorded on S. aureus and Proteus mirabilis.

Conclusion: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both plants show potential antibacterial activity against the microorganisms isolated from human teeth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Biofilms in Water from Groundwater Sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

A. O. Olalemi, F. T. Akinruli, V. O. Oluwasusi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i430093

This study investigated the pattern of occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in biofilms in water from groundwater sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from boreholes and wells within Ado-Ekiti metropolis over a period of 4 months (n = 100), and biofilm samples were taken at interval of seven days within the period of storage and subjected to microbiological analysis until the total bacterial counts were significant. Enumeration of bacteria in biofilms and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates were carried out using standard microbiological methods and multiple antibiotic resistant indexes of the bacterial isolates were calculated. Results showed that a total of 202 bacterial isolates were obtained from the biofilms of the water samples and this include Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae. Of all the bacterial isolates, Streptococcus faecalis had the highest frequency of occurrence (90 %). The bacterial isolates from the biofilms in water from borehole had the highest bacterial count (1.11 × 104 cfu/ml) and were more resistant to antibiotics, whereas those from well had the least bacterial count (0.78 × 104 cfu/ml) and were less resistant to antibiotics. A total of 106 (52.5%) bacterial isolates displayed multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) with indexes greater than 0.2. The findings from this study suggest high prevalence of MAR indexes indicating high source of contamination in areas where antibiotics are used in Ado-Ekiti. Water from the groundwater sources should be treated at point of use and should not be stored for too long before use to prevent the development of biofilms that may be of great significance to human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Assessment of Groundwater Contamination around Waste Management Sites in Rivers State, Nigeria

D. Dappa, Benjamin, C. K. Wachukwu, G. N. Easter, O. A. Ollor

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i430094

Groundwater being the water present beneath the earth surface is a fresh water source due to its lower tendency to be polluted but stand the risk of contamination in recent times due to increase in industrialization, population and poor waste management. Hence the heavy metal assessment of groundwater around waste management sites in Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out. The ground water samples were collected from three locations Iwofe, Igwuruta and Oyigbo all in Rivers state for heavy metals and microbiological analysis using the American Public Health Association (APHA) methods and standard method of culturing, isolating and identification using biochemical tests and Gram staining. The obtained results were compared alongside World Health Organization (WHO), Federal Environmental Protection Agency permissible limits (FEPA). The results showed that there was significant bacteria presence in the groundwater of selected areas and it also showed that heavy metals were also present in the water. The study of heavy metals and microbiological assessment of this groundwater samples suggest that a proper and an advanced waste management practices should be put in place to curb ground water contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fosfomycin an Alternative for the Treatment of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Madiha Sattar, Farheen Mubashir, Urooj M. Ibrahim, Ahmad Raheem Buksh, Fraz Siddiqui, Saleem Hafiz

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v3i430098

Introduction: Fosfomycin an antibiotic having unique chemical structure possess broad-spectrum activity against numerous pathogenic organisms including both gram negative and gram positive bacteria including multi-resistant strains. In early 1970 this antibiotic was accepted in clinical practice, but for several years the use of fosfomycin was limited for treating uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. However, fosfomycin achieves clinically relative concentrations in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, other body fluids, lung, kidney, bladder wall, prostate gland, heart valve tissues, other inflamed tissues, abscess, and bone as well and has shown the good activity in treating severe infections caused by multi-resistant pathogens at various body sites. The objective of the study was to evaluate fosfomycin as an alternative treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary care hospital.

Materials and Methods: The Prospective Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Hospital, Karachi, June 2017 till January 2018. A total of 147 specimens were collected from various body sites include blood, fluids like pleural fluid, synovial fluids, broncho-alveolar lavage, urine, pus and tissues were identified to genus level by a routine biochemical test. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All fosfomycin susceptible isolates i.e. Zone size of ≥16 mm and resistant isolates as zone size <16 mm were evaluated.

Results: Out of 147 isolates 113 (76.9%) isolates were from blood, 12 (8.2%) were from other body fluids, 14(5%) were from pus and 8 (4%) from Urine. All 147 isolates were resistant to methicillin. Out of 147 isolates of MRSA 143(97.3%) were sensitive to fosfomycin and only 4 (2.7%) were found to be resistant.

Conclusion: Fosfomycin proved to be a very good alternative for treating MRSA because of good activity against this pathogen as well as good penetration of fosfomycin in serum; tissues, cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids make this drug effective in treating infections at various body sites.