Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Screening of Antimicrobial Activities of Ocimum gratissimum on Clinical Isolates

Ifeanyi Onyema Oshim, Evelyn Ukamaka Urama, Oluwayemisi Odeyemi, Augustina Nkechi Olise, Sunday Odeyemi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i130095

This study was undertaken to evaluate  the antimicrobial activities of crude  ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (scent leaf) on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella  pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus auerus and Candida albicans.The antimicrobial activities were carried out using  agar well diffusion method. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) of the plant extracts on the test isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin and fluconazole (positive controls) were used in comparison with crude extract of O. gratissimum leaves and also, Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as the negative control. The ethanolic extract of O. gratissimum showed antibacterial activity with the mean inhibitory zone diameter of 3 -7mm against S. auerus, 2 mm against E. coli, 2 – 12 mm against K. pneumoniae, 2 mm against P.aeruginosa. Ethanol and methanol crude extracts of O. gratissimum leaves   showed no effect on   C.albicans. O. gratissimum extracts showed the lower   antimicrobial activity than the commercially available antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and fluconazole). The minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the extracts on the test organisms also increased in the following order; methanol < ethanol. Hence, this   extract could   only serve   as antibacterial agent in the management of bacterial infection because it has no antifungal activities on Candida isolates used in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Sida cordifolia Leaf Extract

Dhanapal Venkatachalam, Samuel Thavamani, Aneesh C. Sebastian, V. B. Anju, Christy Mathew, Dona Leon, Jithin Thomas, M. Mumthas Muhammed

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i130096

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate in-vitro efficacy of antibacterial, and antifungal activities of chloroform extract of leaf of Sida cordifolia L. against some human pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. S. cordifolia (Malvaceae) is used as anti-rheumatic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-asthmatic, nasal decongestant, antiviral, laxative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and in the treatment of Parkinson disease.

Methodology: Chloroform extract of S.cordifolia was used for antimicrobial screening. Antibacterial activity was tested against pathogenic bacterial strains Eschericha coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Also antifungal activity was tested against one human pathogenic fungal strain i.e. Candida albicans. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of S. cordifolia extract was carried out by using disc diffusion method.

Results: Chloroform extract of S. cordifolia showed the largest zone of inhibition (10mm) against S. aureus at 50µgm/mL and no zone of inhibition against E.coli at 50µgm/ml. Chloroform extract has shown more potent antibacterial activity against S.aureus. Chloroform extract was found to be more effective against human pathogenic fungus C. albicuns. The zone of inhibition of chloroform extract was 10mm.The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compounds like alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds which may contribute for the anti-microbial action of this plant. 

Conclusions: The results concludes that chloroform extract of S. cordifolia leaf possess antimicrobial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Salmonella typhi Serum Antibodies and Stool Antigen among Undergraduate Students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Seyi Samson Enitan, John Cletus Ihongbe, John Okeleke Ochei, Emmanuel Ileoma, Esther Ngozi Adejumo, Oluwadamilola Rosemary Ogunsola

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i130097

Background: Salmonella typhi infection is endemic in Nigeria with varied morbidity and mortality rates.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rate of Salmonella typhi infection among the undergraduate Students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State using rapid diagnostic method.

Study Design: This is a descriptive-epidemiological survey. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, between April and June, 2018. 

Materials and Methods: Blood and stool specimens were randomly collected from 200 consenting undergraduate Students and screened using Solid Rapid Diagnostic Typhoid (United Kingdom) and Accu-Chek S. typhi antigen (India) Test Kits, respectively according to the manufacturer instruction.                                                                                           

Results: Out of the 200 participants screened, 7(3.5%) were positive for S. typhi serum immunoglobulin M antibody (IgM Ab), 68 (34.0%) were positive for S. typhi serum immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG Ab), while 18 (9.0%) were positive for S. typhi stool antigen (SAg). Percentage sero-positivity for S. typhi serum IgG antibody was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among participants who were male (29.0%), 16-20 years (17.0%) and Occupants of Hall 15 (8.0%). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of Salmonella typhi infection in this study include: lack of Typhoid fever vaccination, past history of typhoid fever, drinking of unsafe water and raw cow milk, consumption of beef, poultry and street vended food, as well as poor toilet hygiene.

Conclusion: The outcome of this study show that Salmonella typi infection exist among undergraduate Students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State; therefore, prompt treatment of all identified cases, in addition to a sustainable implementation of preventive measures is needed to halt the cycle of transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Accra, Ghana: A Cross-sectional Study

Shadrack Okaijah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Philip Apraku Tawiah, Solomon Sosu Quarshie, George Yiadom Osei, Albert Awuku Kumi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i130099

Background: The significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) relates to its potential to cause acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour and preterm rupture of the membranes. Additionally, it has been associated with clinical conditions such as anaemia, preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal mortality.

Aim: This study, therefore, determined the prevalence of ASB among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. 

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using convenient sampling method was used to recruit 200 pregnant women attending antenatal care at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) from January – April 2014. Bacteriological, urine chemistry and routine urine analyses, as well as antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine samples of pregnant women, were carried out using appropriate standard methods. Variables were reported in mean, standard deviation, percentages and bar graph. Chi-square test was used to establish statistical difference and association between variables where p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of the total participants, 23 had asymptomatic bacteriuria but no prevalence of ASB was found among Muslims. The association between marital status and the prevalence of ASB was significant (Pearson chi2 = 4.88, p-value = 0.027). Five bacterial isolates were obtained with Escherichia coli (43.6%) being the most prevalent organism. There were more negative reactions than positive reactions with regards to nitrite and leukocyte esterase determination. Both gram-positive and negative isolates recorded high susceptibility to Gentamicin and Norfloxacin. However, Ciprofloxacin showed a high rate of resistance to only gram-negative isolates whiles Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin showed high resistance to gram-positive isolates.

Conclusions: The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 11.5% [95%CI: 7.4% - 16.8%] among the referral pregnant women attending KBTH with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent organism whiles the most susceptible antibiotics were Gentamicin and Norfloxacin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Nutritional Changes Associated with the Thermal Processing and Fermentation of African Oilbean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Seeds for ugba Production

C. N. Obi, M. U. James

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i130100

Boiled slices of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seeds were subjected to a 72-hour traditional fermentation to produce ugba for the evaluation of the effect of boiling and fermentation on the nutritional status of the seeds.  Bacterial isolates recovered from the fermenting substrate include Bacillus, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus and Proteus  species while Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizopus spp were the fungi isolated. Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp were the predominant bacterial starter cultures because they persisted from the beginning till the end of the fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant fungus. Fermentation and boiling improved the nutritional values of the protein, fat, fibre, moisture and ash contents of the ugba samples after 72 hours of fermentation with an increase in pH value towards alkalinity. However, both processes decreased the carbohydrate content of the ugba. Sensory evaluation showed that the laboratory-produced ugba sample compared with the local market sourced ugba in sensory properties. At the end of the fermentation, food borne spoilers and pathogens that were part of the contaminats of the fermenting samples were eliminated by the microbial metabolites thus making ugba safe for human consumption. The ugba can also stay for some days without spoilage in the absence of refrigeration.