Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality of Fresh Salad Vegetables Sold in Calabar Road and Marian Markets, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Mercy Okon Ekong, Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob, Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i330106

The consumption of fresh vegetables is on the increase because of the recent awareness of the numerous health benefits. Most people prefer them raw inform of salads to retain the natural taste and heat-labile nutrients. Thus, evaluating the bacteriological quality of these vegetables for public safety is of primary importance. The bacteriological quality of fresh salad vegetables sold in Calabar markets was evaluated using standard techniques. The mean bacterial cell counts ranged from 2.44x108 Cfu/mL to 1.00 x108 Cfu/mL. In Calabar road market, the highest cell counts were observed in leeks with 2.44 x108 Cfu/mL followed by cabbage with 2.13 x108 Cfu/mL both for Bacillus species. The least count, 1.08 x108 Cfu/mL was obtained from green peas for Listeria and Staphylococcus species. In Marian market, the highest counts were 2.13 x108 Cfu/mL for Bacillus species obtained from cabbage while the lowest count was 1.00 x108 Cfu/mL for Staphylococcus species from green peas and cabbage. The most prevalent bacterial isolate was Staphylococcus species with percentage occurrence of 30% in Marian market and 24% in Calabar road. The most contaminated of the vegetables was carrots with the percentage occurrence of 18% (7 out of 37). The order of contamination in analysed vegetables was; carrots > leeks = cucumber > lettuce = green beans = green peas > cabbage = onion = green bell pepper in both markets. The significance of the findings is that vegetables used as salad recipe could be sources of foodborne infection, particularly during the beginning of the rains when new vegetables are harvested from the ground level. This calls for thorough washing of salad vegetables before consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Microorganisms on Environmental Surfaces in Some Secondary Schools in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Famubo, Joseph A., Oladunjoye, Bunmi B., Sofoluwe, Yetunde O.

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i330107

Due to the ubiquitous nature of bacteria and fungi, the microbiological analysis of environmental surfaces (chairs, tables, floors, hand rails, toilet door knobs and class door knobs) of five (5) secondary schools in Birnin Kebbi metropolis was carried out. Surface swabbing method was used for the collection of a representative sample on the surfaces. Media such as Nutrient agar, Eosin methylene blue, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and Mannitol salt agar were used for the isolation of the organisms. The total bacterial count ranged from 1.1×102 to 9.9×103 CFU/ml, while the total fungi count ranged from 0.0 to 3.6 ×103 CFU/ml. The bacteria isolated include: Corynebacterium kutsceri, Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus sphaerious, Staphlococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aeromonas spp, staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas spp, Micococcus varians, while the fungi isolated include Rhizopus stolonifer, Saccharyomyces cerevisae, Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus niger, Mucor spp., Fusarium spp.

The isolation of these organisms followed series of procedures, starting with samples collected with swab sticks emulsified with peptone water, followed by the sterile dilution of each sample to a factor of 10-1 for chairs, tables, hand rail and door knobs while floor was diluted to a factor of 10-2. One millilitre (1ml) aliquots of which was used as a representative sample used for isolation of pure colonies was followed by series of biochemical test to confirm the identification of each isolate. Despite the routine cleaning practiced in secondary school setting, isolation of microorganisms from secondary school setting is inevitable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Resistance of Escherichia coli from Patients Attending Selected Healthcare Facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

R. H. Abimiku, Y. B, Ngwai, I. H. Nkene, B. E. Bassey, P. A. Tsaku, T. Ibrahim, S. C. Tama, D. Ishaleku, G. R. I. Pennap

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i330108

Aims: This study investigated the phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistance of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheic patients attending some major health facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; between December, 2017 to March, 2019.

Methodology: A total of 207 confirmed E. coli isolates from loose stool samples of patients with suspected cases of diarrhea (69 from Federal Medical Centre Keffi [MCK] 69 from General Hospital Akwanga [GHA] and 69 from Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia [DASHL]) were included in this study.

Results: E. coli was isolated and identified using standard microbiological methods. The antibiotic susceptibility testing for the isolates was carried out and interpreted in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Phenotypic detection of ESBL production in isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime) was carried out using double disc synergy test. The occurrence of E. coli was 100% in all the hospitals. Age groups 0-5 and 6-10 years have the highest occurrence than age group 35 – >45 years. Isolates from DASHL were more resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (86.9%), Streptomycin (75.0%) and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (68.1%), isolates from FMCK were more resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (84.1%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (69.6%), isolates from GHA were more resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (85.5%) and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (73.0%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was observed with the order of occurrence: FMCK (98.6%) > DASHL (92.8%) > GHA (89.9%). The most common MAR index of 0.2 in DASHL was 0.4 (20.3%); FMCK was 0.4 (15.9%) and GHA was 0.3 (17.4%). The order of occurrence of classes of antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolates in DASHL was MDR (84.0%) ˃ XDR(7.2%) > PDR and NMDR (4.3%); in FMCK was MDR (91.3%) ˃ XDR(4.3%) ˃ NMDR (2.9%) and PDR(1.4%); and in GHA was MDR (88.8%) ˃ NMDR(5.8%) > XDR and PDR(2.9%). Detection rate of ESBL was 53.6% (30/207), distributed in relation to the location as DASHL (60.0%), FMCK (50.0%) and GHA (52.6%).

Conclusion: Most of the isolates from the study locations were antibiotic resistance. Further studies on molecular detection of ESBL, diversity and characterization of the E. coli into pathotypes are ongoing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality of Public Swimming Pool in Selected Hotels in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Olajumoke Evelyn Onifade, Busayo Mutiat Olowe, John Obasanmi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i330110

The physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of pool water samples from selected hotels in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 10 pool water samples were collected from five pools before and after use following standard procedures. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed using standard methods. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out according to CLSI procedures. Physicochemical analyses showed that the pool water samples were clear and colourless. The different parameters examined for each of the hotel showed varying degree of values. On the average, it was observed that values for turbidity, temperature and total dissolved solids were above the WHO and EPA permissible limit after use. The total bacterial, coliform and Escherichia coli counts of the pool water samples were higher after use than before use. A total of 21 isolates were recovered and presumptively identified as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From among the 21 isolates, 14 (66.7%) were Escherichia coli, 5 (23.8%) were Enterococcus faecalis while only 2 (9.5%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the isolates tested for antibiotic sensitivity showed considerable resistance to some of the antibiotics used. Findings from this study showed that some of the pools sampled did not meet up to WHO and EPA standards. Hence, the need for an effective and urgent intervention in constant monitoring of recreational facility to safeguard the health of the pool users.

Open Access Review Article

An Over View of Dermatophytosis in Camels

Wisal, G. Abdalla

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i330109

Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection of the skin caused by dermatophytes-filamentous fungi which have ability to invade the epidermis and keratinized tissues such as hair, skin or nails. Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common dermatophytes species isolated from camel. The disease is characterized by circumscribed crusty hairless lesion, (1-2 cm) distributed over the head, neck, shoulder, limbs and flanks. Dermatophytosis can be diagnosed by direct examination, fungal culture, skin biopsy and molecular diagnosis methods. This review forecast more light of the different aspects of this disease.