Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Serratia Marcescens from the Soil and In vitro Prodigiosin Production as Source of Antibiotic, Active against Oxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

B. C. Akin-Osanaiye, I. N. Aruwa, I. W. Olobayotan

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i430112

Background: Wide range of microorganisms produced secondary metabolites as microbial activities in extended habitats.

Aims: The aim of this research is the extraction of the red colored pigment, prodigiosin from Serratia marcesens isolated from the soil and evaluate its antibacterial activity against different strains of oxacillin/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus S. aureus.

Study Design: Two isolates, namely, RMN1 and RMN2, belonging to the Genus, Serratia from two soil samples collected from two strategic locations in University of Abuja, Nigeria were isolated. The isolates were morphologically distinct on the basis of spore colour, aerial and substrate mycelium formation and production of diffusible pigment. Isolates were Gram stained, observed under a microscope and were seen to be Gram negative. Biochemical tests revealed that the two isolates were catalase and citrate positive, and were oxidase negative. One of the two isolates was observed to have significant antibiotic producing potential, and the antibacterial activity of the produced antibiotics (red pigment extracted from cultural supernatants of the isolates grown on Peptone glycerol agar) was assessed using the agar-well diffusion method and streaking agar method.

Results: The results indicated that the pigment extracted in vitro had varying antibacterial activity at different concentrations of 500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml and 62.5 mg/ml against four strains of the test organism (Staphylococcus aureus) titled S1 to S4, the extracted pigment was more effective at concentration 500 mg/ml against the antibiotic resistant S. aureus with the MIC at 125 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the soil of this region could be a good source of prodigiosin having antibacterial activity and thus enable the use of micro-organisms as biological control agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Assessment of Soil Treated with Pesticide and Herbicide in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis of Kebbi State, Nigeria

Joseph A. Famubo, Bunmi B. Oladunjoye

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i430114

The present study was carried out on the effect of pesticides on soil microorganisms at half (x0.5) recommended rate (x1.0), and one and a half (x1.5). One commonly used insecticide Sniper as pesticide and herbicide Glyphosate were used on some physicochemical parameters and microbial populations. The mean value of pH for Sniper (x0.5) was 7.0; Sniper (x1.0) was 6.9; Sniper (x1.5) was 6.8; Glyphosate (x0.5) was 6.9; Glyphosate (x1.0) was 6.8: Glyphosate (x1.5) was 6.8 and for control soil was 7.3 respectively. The conductivity was ranged with a mean of 308.1 mS for Sniper x0.5, 410.3 mS for Sniper x1.0, 388.1 mS for Sniper x1.5, 197.8 mS for Glyphosate x0.5, 117.4 mS for Glyphosate x1.0, 223.85 mS for Glyphosate and 185.7 mS for the control soil. The soil organic matter was taken immediately after the treatments, and after the four weeks of treatment, the values were 1.50 g at week 0 and 0.72 g at week 4 for Sniper x0.5; 1.35 g at week 0 and 0.42 g at week 4 for Sniper x1.0; 1.71 g at week 0 and 0.50 g at week 4 for Sniper x1.5; 1.21 g at week 0 and 0.75 g at week 4 for Glyphosate x0.5; 1.05 g at week 0 and 0.86 g at week 4 for Glyphosate x1.0; 1.67 g at week 0 and 1.01 g at week 4 for Glyphosate x1.5 and 1.90 g at week 0 and 1.45 g at week 4 for the control soil. A total of 8 bacteria species were identified, such as Bacillus spp (50%), Lactobacillus spp (8.3%), Proteus spp (5.6%), Staphylococcus spp (11.1%), Actinomycetes spp (8.3%), Micrococcus spp (2.8%), Pseudomonas spp (8.3%) and Flavobacterium spp (5.6%). The effect of these findings shows that pesticides might be affecting the soil microbial load by reducing it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated in the Air of Some Public Toilets in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Williams, Janet Olufunmilayo, Lumati, Jessica

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i430116

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major challenges facing the health sector. This study was aimed at investigating the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from indoor air of public toilets in motor parks with a view of developing an antibiogram. The study sites included the public toilets in Mile 3 Motor Park, Rivers Transport Company (RTC) park and a General Motor Park in Waterlines, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The indoor air was sampled using the plate exposure and disc diffusion techniques in determining the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. The bacterial isolates in the genera, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were identified.  The antibiogram of the bacteria isolated showed that the bacterial isolates exhibited multi-drug resistant species as the isolates were resistant to more than two antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin and Tarivid are the drug of choice and recommended for treatment of infections from these study sites.

Open Access Review Article

Adaptive Mechanisms of Listeria monocytogenes to Stressors: An Overview

B. A. Haruna, A. S. Kumurya, A. H. Musa

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i430111

Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen which usually infects individuals with impaired cellular immunity and the healthy. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the humans has lots of defensive mechanisms placed to prevent pathogens from establishing themselves and cause infectious diseases. Survival depends on the pathogen’s ability to overcome such preventive mechanism of the host. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits array of mechanisms that ensure its survival against these stressor. These stressors include gastric acid, bile salt, low oxygen tension, antimicrobial peptides e.t.c. Acid tolerance system (ATR), glutamate decarboxylase system (GAD), BilE system, MVs, oxygen sensors are used by Listeria monocytogenes to enhance its chances of survival within host. Our interest here is to look at such adaptive mesures with respect to the stressors encountered.  

Open Access Review Article

Emergence and Re-emergence of Zika Virus; History and Current Trend

B. A. Ajide, A. A. Sobayo, M. M. Igbabul

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v4i430115

Zika virus is an emerging and re-emerging disease of medical and public health importance. The World Health Organization has already declared the virus a new emerging disease to be managed. The virus was first discovered in Uganda in the year 1947, and the last major outbreak was in Brazil in 2015 and then witness again in India 2017-2018. Aedes aegypti is one of the mosquitoes responsible for transmitting the Zika virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus and chikungunya virus as a primary vector in certain parts of the world. and other south and Central American countries that made it considered as a re-emerging virus. The infectious agent of Zika virus (Aedes aegypti) has been introduced to vulnerable populations through trade, travel and climate change. As earth’s climate warms and habitats are altered the virus has spread to new geographic areas such that warm temperatures allow mosquitos and diseases spread. There is currently no vaccine, but its development is still ongoing. Public awareness about this silent monster virus must be propagated and proper management of the virus is necessary to avoid future occurrences.