Open Access Original Research Article

Groundnut Shell Infusion Agar as a Culture Medium for Moulds

Williams, Janet Olufunmilayo, Sokari, T. G., Buekor, Grace

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i230124

Aim: To carry out a Comparative mould analysis using groundnut shell infusion agar (GSA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA), as the control.

Study Design: Laboratory-experimental design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil samples were obtained from three different locations (Garden soil beside Biology Main Laboratory, opposite Faculty of Law and Faculty of Agriculture) in Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria. The study was carried out for three (3) months at the Microbiology Laboratory, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt.

Methodology: Groundnut Shell Infusion Agar (GSA) was prepared by weighing 28 g of blended gari and 15 g of agar powder into 1L of groundnut shells filtrate. Potato dextrose Agar (PDA), a conventional medium was prepared according to the manufacturer’s specifications. GSA was prepared by weighing 28 g of blended gari and 15 g of agar powder into 1L of groundnut shells filtrate. Potato dextrose agar, a conventional medium was prepared according to the Manufacturer’s specifications.

Results: The mean mould counts from the different locations ranged from 3.7×107 cfu/ml to 7.8×107 cfu/ml on GSA and 3.7×107 cfu/ml to 1.5×109 cfu/ml on PDA following incubation at room temperature (27°c ± 2) for 3-5 days. The moulds identified were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus sp. Mucor sp. Botrytis sp. Helminthosporium caryopsidum, and Penicillum sp.

Conclusion: From the results obtained, it showed that GSA could be used successfully for quantitative mould counts and other mycological studies. This would proffer solution to the high cost of conventional media used for moulds as well as agro waste pollution in the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attended on Antenatal Care Clinics in Karu Local Government Area, Nasarawa State

P. Alexander, M. M. Manyi, T. T. Mbagwu

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i230125

Aims: This study is aimed at studying the prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross-sectional studies of the prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women at antenatal care clinics in Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Place and Duration of Study: Antenatal care clinics in Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State were enrolled in the study which lasted for four months between October 2017 to January 2018.

Methodology: Four hundred and fifty (450) midstream urine specimens were collected in sterile disposable urine containers and transported to microbiology laboratory of Bingham university Karu for analysis. A structured questionnaire was administered to all participant whose informed consent was sort and samples collected. Samples collected were analysed using microscopy, morphological characteristics of inoculum on Maconkay, blood agar and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar (CLED) and biochemical characteristics of the grown colony.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: From a pure culture of an identified bacterium, a loopful bacterial colony were transferred to a tube containing 5 ml of normal saline and mixed gently until it formed a homogenous suspension. The turbidity of the suspension was then adjusted to the density of mcfarland 0.5 to standardize the inoculum size. A sterile cotton swab was then dipped into the suspension and the excess was removed by gentle rotation of the swab against the surface of the tube. The swab was then used to distribute the bacteria evenly over the entire surface of Mueller-Hinton agar (oxoid). The inoculated plates were left at room temperature to dry for 3-5 minutes. Thereafter sterile needles were used to aseptically place an antibiotic disc on the surface of the inoculated plate. 30 ug sumetrolin (SXT), 30 ug chloramphenicol (CH), 10 ug sparfloxacin (SP), 10 ug ciprofloxacin (CPX), 30 ug amoxicillin (AM), 30 ug augmentin (AU), 10 ug gentamicin (CN), 30 ug pefloxacin (PEF), 10 ug ofloxacin (OFX) and 30 ug streptomycin (S) were used for gram-negative bacteria isolates while  10 ug pefloxacin (PEF), 10 ug gentamicin (CN), 30 ug ampicillin-oxacillin (APX), 20 ug cefuroxine (Z), 30 ug amoxicillin (AM), 25 ug ceftriaxone (R), 10 ug ciprofloxacin, 30 ug streptomycin (S), 30 ug sumetrolin (SXT) and 10 ug of erythromycin (E) were used for gram-positive bacteria isolates. The plates were then incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. diameters of the zone of inhibition around the discs were measured and the isolates were classified as sensitive, intermediate and resistant according to the standardized table supplied by CLSI (2014).

Results: The results obtained showed that 285 (63.33%) of the pregnant women had bacteriuria. Out of this, there were 77.93% cases of asymptomatic and 22.03% symptomatic bacteriuria respectively. The bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (25.42%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (20.34%), Klebsiella spp (13.56%), Streptococcus spp (16.94%.), Staphylococcus aureus (10.17%), P. aeruginosa (8.47%) and Proteus mirabilis (5.08%). Gram-negativee bacteria isolated were most susceptible to 25 ug of Augmentin with susceptibility rate of 77.4% followed by 10 ug of gentamicin with 70.9% and 10 ug of Pefloxacin with 61.3% while Gram-positive isolates were most susceptible to 20 ug of Cefuroxine with 60.7% susceptibility rate followed closely by 57.1% susceptibility to both 10 ug Gentamicin and 30 ug Amoxicillin and 53.6% to 10 ug of Erythromycin. The age bracket 26-35 years had the highest prevalence of bacteriuria, (83.3%). women in their third trimesters were most infected with the prevalence rate of 91.39%. statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between bacteriuria and age, gestational age and occupation.

Conclusion: This study recorded a significantly high prevalence of bacteriuria in the study area among the participant. This high prevalence calls for concern due to the possible effect of bacteriuria on the fetus. also having a significant percentage of this prevalence being asymptomatic (i.e 77.93%), there is, therefore, need to educate the women on personal hygiene and also need for treatment. also noting the increasing rate of resistance to the commonly administered antibiotics, thus the need to embark on massive enlightenment campaign with prevention-focused messages. also, the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women needs to be made a priority to prevent birth complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiogram of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from West African Mud Creeper (Tympanotonus fuscatus)

N. P. Akani, I. O. Hakam, T. Sampson

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i230126

The menace of opportunistic infections arising from food contamination can be tackled with knowledge of agents effective against the etiologic agents. A bacteriological examination was carried out on Tympanotonos fuscatus (West African Mud Creeper) sold at different markets in Port Harcourt, Nigeria with interest on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their antibiogram using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that parboiled samples had the mean total heterotrophic bacterial counts between 26.33±11.02x106 and 85.67±3.79x106 cfu/g, total coliform counts, 6.0±1.73x106 and 13.0±7.21x106 cfu/g and total Pseudomonad counts, 0.00 and 0.67±1.16x102 cfu/g. Roasted samples had total heterotrophic bacterial counts between 40.0±1.73x106 and 45.75±3.86x106 cfu/g, total coliform counts, 10.0±7.211x106 and 13.0±9.539 x 106 cfu/g and total Pseudomonad counts, 6.67±4.619x102 and 20.75±22.824 x102 cfu/g. There was difference (p<0.05) in the total heterotrophic bacteria counts of parboiled samples from the different markets but none in coliform and Pseudomonads counts. No difference (p>0.05) was recorded in counts from the roasted samples. Thirty-two (32) Pseudomonas isolates were obtained from the markets occurring least in the parboiled 6 (18.75%) samples compared to roasted 26 (81.25%) samples. Mile3 market had the highest occurrence 3 isolates (50%) for parboiled samples whereas Mile1 market with 1 isolate (16.67%) was lowest. Results of Antibiogram revealed that Pseudomonas species had varying sensitivity to all the antibiotics tested and was most susceptible to Ofloxacin (90.6%) and most resistant to Nalidixic acid (84.4%). Although the counts obtained are within the upper limits (5x107cfu/gm) recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF), there is need to properly cook Tympanotonus fuscatus before consumption to reduce risks of opportunistic pathogens. Infections from Pseudomonas species may be managed with appropriate doses of ofloxacin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Susceptibility Study of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Dry Catfish Sold in Some Open Markets in Zaria - Nigeria

Joseph O. Oko, Gbonjubola O. Adeshina, Josiah A. Onaolapo

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i230127

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotics susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dry catfish sold in some open markets in Zaria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, from December 2017 to February 2019.

Methodology: Two hundred dry catfish samples were collected aseptically, wrapped in foil paper, packaged in clean polyethylene bags from open markets in Zaria and analysed by standard microbiological methods. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was tested using the disc diffusion method. Eight antibiotics belonging to eight classes were employed in the study. The β-lactamase test was done using the acidimetric method while the plasmid curing was done by exposing the multidrug resistant isolates to varying concentrations of acridine orange in Mueller Hinton broth.

Results: From the 200 samples of dry catfish, 138 presumptive staphylococcal isolates were obtained. Amongst the 138 staphylococcal isolates out of which 109 (79%) were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus by Microgen Staph ID kits. The susceptibility test showed that 46.8% of the S. aureus isolates were multidrug resistant. The isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin (100.0%) and Vancomycin (100.0%). The phenotypic expression of resistance showed that 27.8% of isolates were resistant to Cefoxitin, Clindamycin and Linezolid. Eighteen (35.3%) out of the total resistant isolates were β-lactamase producers. From the study, 50% of isolates resistant to Cefoxitin and Clindamycin became sensitive to the drugs after exposure to sub-MIC concentration of acridine orange solution.

Conclusion: This study showed that some S. aureus isolates from dry catfish in this study were resistant to commonly used antibiotics in the study area whereas others were sensitive this may be because of the use of these drugs in animal feeds.

Open Access Review Article

An Over View of Ovine and Caprine Dermatophytosis

Wisal G. Abdalla

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i230123

Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of hair and keratinized layers of the epidermis and is caused by keratinophilic and keratinolytic genera such as Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton. The animal age and trauma are important predisposing factors of disease. Show lambs are more susceptible to ringworm. T. verrucosum has been cited as a major agent encountered in cases of ovine and caprine ringworm. Lesions in lambs are most often noticed on the head while in goats lesions can occur beside head in pinnae, neck, and legs. The disease can be diagnosed by direct examination, fungal culture, skin biopsy and molecular diagnostic methods. This review will forecast more light on the different aspects of this disease.