Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Demographic Factors Associated with Falciparum Malaria among Hospital Patients in Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria

Gideon Yakusak Benjamin, Benjamin Bartholomew, Jabir Abdullahi, Liman, Mubarak Labaran

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i330129

Aim: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites that belong to the genus Plasmodium. It is responsible for the death of millions of people worldwide. This study was aimed at assessing some demographic factors associated with falciparum malaria among hospital patients in Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out involving three hundred consenting participants. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data from the participants; blood samples were collected from them and screened for Plasmodium falciparum by Rapid Diagnostic Test. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films were prepared and examined under the microscope to confirm the presence of the parasite.  The data obtained were analyzed and P values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of malaria in males [22.6%] was slightly higher than females [21.7%]. The age group ≤10 had the highest prevalence followed by age groups 31-40 [31%], 11-20 [23.3%], 21-30 [12.6%] and ≥41 [9.1%] [p=0.002]. Participants who were married had higher prevalence [31.1%] than those who were divorced [0.0%] and single [13.2%] [p=0.000].

Conclusion: The research shows that Plasmodium falciparum is still prevalent in the study area. Age and marital status are important determinants of malaria prevalence as highlighted in this study. Children less than 10 years are at high risk for malaria, preventive measures should therefore target this group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Biodeteriogens Isolated from Painted Classroom Wall Surfaces in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

H. O. Stanley, B. C. Anele, P. O. Okerentugba, O. M. Immanuel, C. J. Ugboma

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i330130

Painted wall surfaces provide breeding ground for diverse microbial flora capable of causing deterioration of the building and progressively impact on the health of inhabitant. This study was undertaken to determine the bacterial and fungal biodeteriogens of painted classroom wall surfaces in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Bacterial and fungal biodeteriogens were isolated from classroom wall surfaces showing visible signs of deterioration and dampness. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA was used in the identification of the isolates. The bacterial deteriogens were identified as Myroides odoratus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp. and Alcaligenes aquatilis, while fungal deteriogens were identified as Aspergillus nomius and Trametes polyzona. Presence of microorganisms in classroom wall surfaces can impact on air quality of the learning environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Enzymes Production Activity of Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Rhizopus Species in Paraeforce (Herbicide) Degradation

F. I. Onianwah, H. O. Stanley, V. C. Eze, V. O. Ifeanyi, C. J. Ugboma

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i330131

The study aims to evaluate enzymes that facilitate fungal degradation of paraeforce. Soil samples for fungal isolation were collected from impacted sites and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The isolates were screened for growth and tolerance to paraefoce in 50 mg/l concentration of the test herbicides. Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Rhizopus species were found to grow in paraeforce supplemented PDA. Qualitative and quantitative assay for different enzyme production in hydrogen peroxide, methyl red, guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide-pyrogallol complex proved potential for catalase, lignin peroxidase, laccase and manganese peroxidase production, respectively. The results showed that these three fungi have great potential for catalase, peroxidase and laccase production after six days aerobic incubation in paraeforce and these enzymes facilitated the utilization of the paraeforce.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activity of Chromolaena Odorata L. Leaf Extract against Selected Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Wounds

Mercy Adewumi Alabi, Olubukola Olusola-Makinde, Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i330132

Aim: To study the antibacterial effect of Chromolaena odorata extracts on multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae from wounds.

Place of Study: University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January and June 2019.

Methodology: A total of 87 wound swabs were collected from patients of University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure. Air-dried and powdered C. odorata leaves were extracted using hot water, ethanol and methanol as extraction solvents and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The concentrated C. odorata extracts were purified using chromatographic techniques. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of C. odorata extracts were done by standard methods. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates to a panel of ten (10) conventional antibiotics was determined by disc diffusion method.

Results: C. odorata methanolic extract had the highest extract yield (26.2%). From the multidrug resistance analysis, 66.7% of bacterial isolates tested had multidrug resistance index (MDRI) of 100%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was susceptible to 100 mg/ml of C. odorata ethanolic extract but resistant (0.00±0.00) to 100 mg/ml of hot aqueous C. odorata extract.

Conclusion: This study reveals the inhibitory activities of C. odorata extracts on multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from wounds and an indication of their potential in the treatment of wound infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium Isolated from Local Cheese in Ondo State, Nigeria

Anthony Kayode Onifade, Oladapo Daniel Omololu

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2019/v5i330133

Aims: To determine the prevalence and current sensitivity status of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Typhimurium to commercial antibiotics in cheese at the Southern Western part of Nigeria.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Cheese samples were bought from nomad cheese vendors across various suburbs in three major districts (Akure, Ikare and Owo) of Ondo state.

Methodology: A total of two hundred and sixty (260) cheese samples were vended from various suburbs across the aforementioned senatorial districts of Ondo State. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Typhimurium from cheese samples were carried out on Salmonella-shigella (S.S) and were identified biochemically through standard microbiological techniques. The identified strains were subjected to ten (10) conventional antibiotics for their sensitivity patterns.

Results: The distribution patterns of the S. enterica serovar typhimurium. Typhimurium isolated were 9(47.4%), 8(42.10%) and 2(10.5%) in Ikare, Akure, and Owo respectively. The degree of resistance of the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Typhimurium to the various antibiotics used was 6.3% to Chloramphenicol (30 µg); 6.3% to Ofloxacin (10 µg); 6.3% of Sparfloxacin (10 µg); 12.5% to Streptomycin (30 µg); 18.8% to Sceptrin; 18.8% to Ciprofloxacin (10 µg); 25% to Gentamycin (10 µg); 31.3% to Amoxicillin (30 µg); 37.5% to Pefloxacin (10 µg) and 56.3% to Augmentin (30 µg).

Conclusion: Cheese creates a favourable environment for a variety of microorganisms and can be important source of foodborne pathogens.