Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Properties of Water Yam and Cowpea Flour Blends for Production of Snacks

J. O. Nwafor, A. N. Kanu, E. C. Kelechukwu, N. O. Nwohu, V. N. Ezebuiro

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330149

Aim: The aim of this study is to produce flour from different blend ratio of water yam and cowpea and determination of the physico chemical properties of the snacks produced from the flour blends.

Introduction: Snacks are something consumed occasionally for pleasure rather than for nutritive purpose. They are mainly produced by wheat flour. Wheat flour, the main ingredient for production of snacks are imported and thus, the cost of importation of wheat flour eat deep into the Nigeria economy and has placed a considerable burden on the foreign exchange reserve, in the long run causes increase in wheat products. Furthermore, over consumption of wheat products leads to celiac disease associated with immunological disease of the upper intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten containing cereals. Production of alternative flour to wheat flour can be a welcome idea. Cereal has high nutritional value and it has an appreciable protein content.

Study Design: The physico chemical analysis was carried out at the biochemistry laboratory of National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike.

Methodology: The water yam (Dioscorea alata) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flours were prepared and they were used for water yam/ cowpea blend at different ratio of (ie 100%:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50). The 100% water yam was the control sample. Functional properties and proximate composition of the samples were determined.

Results and Discussion: According to the result generated from the sensory evaluation, it was discovered that yam/ cowpea blend in the ration of 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 were more acceptable than the other samples. This can be related to the high content of cowpea in the samples.

Conclusion: The yam /cowpea blend in the concentration of 50; 50 was more preferred than the other samples by the panelist.  As a means of nutritional balance yam fortified with cowpea can boost the protein intake of population consuming yam as its main staple.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Coliforms Bacteria Contamination in Lake Tanganyika as Bioindicators of Recreational and Drinking Water Quality

Lambert Niyoyitungiye, Anirudha Giri, Marc Ndayisenga

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330150

Worldwide coliform bacteria are used as indicators of environmental and fecal contamination and hence, the possible presence of pathogenic organisms. As most people living on the shores of Lake Tanganyika use its water for cooking, drinking and washing; the monitoring of organisms indicating water pollution is more predictive of the presence of certain pathogens to protect public health. This study was carried out along the Burundian coast at 4 sampling sites (Kajaga, Nyamugari, Rumonge and Mvugo) in the months of January, February and March 2018, to assess quantitatively the presence of coliform bacteria in comparison to the standards recommended by BIS-10500 (1991, 2012) and WWF-Pakistan (2007) for drinking and recreational water quality and to sensitize the populace using the untreated water about the potential health risks. The ColonyForming Unit (CFU) method was used and the results showed that total coliform bacteriaobtained was in the range of 9000 to 60000 CFU/100 mLand are indicative of environmental contamination of all sampling stations with an average of 33250 CFU/100 mL. Fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 5000 CFU/100 mL with an overall average of 2000 CFU/100 m Land Kajaga site appeared free of contamination as fecal coliform count there was nil. The Escherichia coli count recorded ranged from 0 to 3000 CFU/100 mL with an average of 1350 CFU/100 mL. At Kajaga stations, Escherichia coli count was 0 and therefore there is no evidence of recent fecal contamination. Thus, if only fecal contamination is taken into account, the water from Kajaga station can be considered as safe for drinking and bathing purposes but incidentally total coliforms were found at Kajagastation. The water from all sampling stations require treatment before any use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteria Counts and Fungal Loads on Eggshells Collected from Isa-Brown Hens Raised under Different Systems

M. Adegbenro, G. F. Adelegan, G. E. Onibi, J. A. Adesida

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330151

Aims: To assess bacteria and fungi loads on eggs collected from laying birds under three different rearing systems.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design with a 3×3 factorial arrangement.

Place and Duration of Study: Field trial was done at Oluade Farms, Ilara-Mokin, while Laboratory assessment of eggs was done at Microbiology Laboratory of the Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure. The whole study lasted for 90 days.

Methodology: Collection of eggs for assessments was done at the end of each phase and was collected three times a day for the different housing systems. The eggs collected were labelled and sealed up in transparent white polythene nylon before assessments. All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. 

Results: Highest bacteria count (43.56± 7.48×10-3cfu/ml) was observed in egg collected from deep litter system, while the lowest bacteria count (13.11±7.4×10-3cfu/ml) was observed in egg collected from the outdoor system. Highest bacteria count (75.00±12.95×10-3cfu/ml) was recorded in egg collected from deep litter system in the morning while lowest bacteria count (2.67±12.95×10-3cfu/ml) was recorded in egg collected from battery cage system in the evening. Highest fungi count (10.89±4.77×10-3cfu/ml) was observed in egg collected from battery cage system, while lowest fungi count (2.56±4.77×10-3cfu/ml) was observed in egg collected from deep litter system. Escherichia coli was isolated in all eggs collected from the rearing systems and collection periods except battery cage system in the morning and outdoor system in the morning. Staphilococcus aureus was isolated in eggs collected from all the housing systems and collection periods except in outdoor system in the afternoon. Aspergillus niger was isolated across all the housing systems and collection periods.

Conclusion: From the results, it shows that the different eggshells from the three rearing systems were contaminated with bacteria and fungi loads at varying levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physicochemical Assessment of Sediment in Bodo Community, Rivers State, Niger Delta

E. Eseosa Ediae, I. Cliff Ediae, U. Okon Edet, I. Ubi Bassey, E. Nkagafel Mbim, G. Elkanah Umoafia, V. Obi Ejelonu

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330152

Crude oil pollution is common place in the Niger Delta despite well known adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial biodiversities. Triplicate sediment samples were obtained from Bodo community in Ogoni Land, Niger Delta and made into a composite sample. The sample was then evaluated for physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), total heterotrophic bacteria (THBC), and fungi (THFC) using standards methodologies. Concentration profile of heavy metals was iron (Fe) > chromium (Cr) > zinc (Zn) > nickel (Ni) > vanadium (V) in decreasing order. Furthermore, the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, sulphate were 884.53, 12.32, 34.45, and 26.76 mg/kg, respectively. TPH and PAH concentrations were 30,797 and 52.12 mg/kg, respectively. Nitrate, iron, chromium, nickel, TPH, and PAH all failed to meet regulatory standards. TPH failed to meet Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) target and intervention values of 50 and 5,000 mg/kg, respectively. Total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi counts were observed to decrease with days of incubation in crude oil. The findings in the study reveal worrisome levels of TPH, PAH, iron, chromium, and nickel, and impact on microbial diversity. Thus, there is a need for periodic monitoring of sediments and water bodies in the Niger Delta.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Escherichia coli Isolated from Children Admitted at Selected Health Care Facilities in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania

Mzelifa Daud, Balthazar Nyombi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330153

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) development among Gram negative bacteria has become a significant public health threat worldwide. Currently there are fewer antimicrobials available for treatment and prevention of some of bacterial infections. Antimicrobial resistance development in some of bacterial strains undermines empirical treatment regimens, thereby limiting choice of appropriate antibiotic. As this problem continues to grow, epidemiological surveillance is warranted to generate data that is reliable to understand the distribution of AMR among healthcare settings and geographical regions.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from children admitted at selected health care facilities in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. This was descriptive cross sectional facility based study conducted from October 2017 to April 2018. The study aimed at answering the following questions; What are the carriage rates of Escherichia coli among children admitted at selected health facilities in Moshi municipality, What is the resistance rates of Escherichia coli isolated from children against the commonly used antibiotics in Moshi Municipality and What is the prevalence of the Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates from children admitted at health facilities in Moshi municipality?

Results: Escherichia coli were isolated from all 282 cultured archived rectal swabs and all isolates were susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producers were 13.1% and 86.9% were nonextended spectrum beta lactamase producers. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 282 isolates on the commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin (83%), trimethoprim (75.9%), cefuroxime (32.6%), ceftriaxone (30.1%), ceftazidime (29.4%), ciprofloxacin (27.7%), amoxicillin/clavunic (24%), gentamicin (21%), chloramphenicol (16.3%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (8.1%). All Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing isolates were resistant to Ampicillin.

Conclusion: Amikacin and meropenem is still the antibiotic of choice as a second line for treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli. Majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and Trimethoprim. Both ESBL and non ESBL producing Escherichia coli showed resistance to commonly used antibiotics, hence, further studies are warranted to understand mechanisms used by non ESBL producing Escherichia coli to develop resistance.