Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Hospital Waste from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital on the Environment

H. O. Stanley, V. N. Egbe

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i430154

The aim of this study is to determine the impact of hospital wastes indiscriminately dumped at exposed dumpsites within the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Ten random samples (100g each) were withdrawn from a depth of 0–15 cm from each sampling site for soil analysis and settling plate technique was used for microbial air quality assessment. The Microbiological assessment of the dumpsites revealed an array of microorganisms viz; Baccilus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp. Escherichia coli, Trichophyton sp., Scopulariopsis sp.  Candida albicansFusarium sp., Mucor sp. and Cladosporium sp. and the microbial population dynamics reveals that the bacterial and fungal counts where more abundant on hospital dumpsites when compared to a pristine soil,  as was the heavy metals levels. The air quality assessment of the dump site area reveals that most of the isolated pathogens from the soil analysis could also be airborne. This study has shown that improper dumping of hospital waste impacts deleteriously on the environment and measures must be put in place for proper management to avert any adverse health impact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Boreholes and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Action of Disinfectants Used for the Microbiological Water Treatment

Henry Jacques Matita Bomoi, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana, Kola Nsimba, Nzau Matiaba, Booto Bokonda, Léonard Ukondalemba Mindele, Clément Mutunda Mbadiko

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i430155

Water pollution is currently at the top of the environmental agenda. In this study, the main objectives were (i) to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of well and borehole water found in the vicinity of the University of Kinshasa and (ii) to assess the sensitivity of Escherichia coli and Enterococci strains isolated from various selected water points to disinfectants used at the industrial scale (Chlorine and chlorine dioxide) or in the household (Aquatabs) for the microbiological treatment of water. Three sites having wells or boreholes were chosen for sample collection, namely: The University of Kinshasa and its vicinity (Kindele and Kemi districts). The Physico-chemical parameters were determined in situ and then in the laboratory; and concerned the following indicators: pH, conductivity and turbidity. Moreover, the bacteriological quality was assessed by detecting the presence of faecal pollution indicator bacteria (E. coli and Enterococcus sp). The susceptibility of E. coli and Enterococcus sp strains to antimicrobials generally used for the microbiological treatment of drinking water was assessed by the dilution method on agar medium. The physico-chemical analyses showed that: (i) acid pH values in the different water points under study ranging from 6.3-6.5, (ii) conductivity and turbidity values range between 28.5 and 146 NTU. The bacteriological analyses showed that the Kemi district was the only water point which exhibited contamination with fecal pollution indicator bacteria. The strains of Enterococci and E. coli isolated from that well were highly sensitive to chlorine dioxide and Aquatabs and less sensitive to chlorine while the strains of E. coli are highly sensitive to chlorine dioxide and Aquatabs compared to the strains of Enterococci. In conclusion, we can recommend to these populations, the use of these compounds for water treatment precisely Aquatabs for household.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Some Ethno Medicinal Plant Extracts on Botryodiplodia theobromae the Causal Organism of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Rot

Chikwendu A. E., Okigbo R. N., Anukwuorji C. A., Anukwu J. U., Eze H. N.

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i430156

Post-harvest deterioration and rot caused by diverse microorganisms is the single most important factor militating against yam production in Nigeria. In an approach towards the development of ecofriendly antifungal compound in controlling yam rot, ethanol and aqueous extracts of six commonly available plants: Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum, Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon citratus, Carica papaya and Citrus sinensis were tested in combination for their synergistic effect against Botryodiplodia theobromae. Four different extract concentrations (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10%) were obtained from each extract mixture. Cold solvent extraction method was used for the extraction of plant materials while food poisoning technique was used for in vitro screening of plant extracts against rot inducing fungal organism. Botryodiplodia theobromae was tested to be pathogenic on healthy yam tubers with rot incidence of 80 mm. The synergistic effects of the combined extract varied with the plants combined, solvent of extraction, concentration of extract and test fungi. Ethanol extract showed greater effect in the inhibition of the entire organism than aqueous. All the extract combinations that had Neem as a component did better than other combinations in aqueous extracts. Inhibition of fungal growth was best observed at 7.5% and 10% extract concentrations. The highest inhibitory effect on the test organism (Botryodiplodia theobromae) was by the combination of Neem/Bitter leaf and Orange/Scent leaf, with values of 98.40±0.095% and 94.24±0.583% respectively for aqueous while the highest inhibition for ethanol extract was observed from Scent leaf/Bitter leaf and Pawpaw/Lemon, with values of 99.80±0.000% and 98.83±0.619% respectively these were significantly (P<0.05) better than other combinations. With respect to the synergistic activity between the plants materials combined in this study, all the combinations showed great synergism against the test organisms. This is likely to be a means of achieving pragmatic, effective control and prevention of food spoilage, since the development of new classes of antifungal agents is of paramount importance. The crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of all the six plant extracts showed potential synergy on organisms responsible for yam rot, hence they are recommended for the control of rot inducing microbial organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Molecular Detection of tetA Genes in Tetracycline Resistant Salmonella Species Isolated from Different Water Sources in Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

M. O. Adamu, D. Ishaleku, Y. B. Ngwai, S. O. Obiekezie, J. E. Owuna

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 27-41
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i430157

This study was carried out to determine the antibiotics susceptibility profile and molecular detection of tetA genes in tetracycline resistant Salmonella species isolated from different water sources in Keffi, Central Nigeria. A total of 100 water samples, 25 each of well, public borehole, tap and sachet water were collected from different locations within the Metropolis and analysed using standard microbiological techniques. Of which 38(38.0%) of the samples were contaminated with Salmonella species with well water having the highest contamination rate, 18(72.0%) and sachet water having the least, 3(12.0%). The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates revealed varying degree of susceptibility in which isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (100.0%), Gentamicin (84.2%) and Chloramphenicol (76.3%). Susceptibility of the isolates to the other antibiotics tested is as follows; Vancomycin (47.4%), Ceftriaxone (44.7%), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (39.5%), Tetracycline (36.8%), Sulfamethoxazole /Trimethoprim (31.6%) and Erythromycin (15.9%). They also exhibited different antibiotic resistance phenotypes: E, TE, SXT; AMC, E, SXT, TE, CRO, VA; TE, AMC, SXT, E; CRO, E, SXT, TE, AMC and E, AMC, SXT, TE, CRO which expresses a resistance frequency of 2(5.3%) respectively. The isolates were multiple antibiotics resistant with MAR index of 0.6 as the peak and 0.2 as the least. MAR index of 0.3 was the most encountered indices with an occurrence of 8(21.1%). Similarly, of the 38 total isolates, only 21(55.3%) were cured indicating that resistance were plasmid-mediated. Molecular detection of Tetracycline resistant plasmid gene (tetA) was conducted by Polymerase Chain Reaction method while agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the tetA genes were on the 282bp band. Therefore, water in Keffi should be properly treated before consumption while boreholes and wells should be dug far away from latrines and septic tanks so as to avoid cross-contamination by faecal materials and indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors Associated with Brucellosis and Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Camel Milk in Garissa County, Kenya

M. Noor, V. Rotich, J. W. Kiarie, K. Cheruiyot, J. M. Kagira

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i430158

Aim: The current study was undertaken to assess the prevalence, risk factors of brucellosis and presence of pathogenic bacteria isolated from camel milk in Garrisa County, Kenya.

Methodology: The study design was cross-sectional where questionnaires were administered to farmers to assess the risk factors associated with brucellosis. The experimental study was also employed to identify bacteria in milk samples which were collected from 104 camels. Fifty milk samples were obtained from local farms while 54 were from sales point at Garissa market. Further test for brucellosis using milk ring test was also carried out.

Results: The overall prevalence of brucellosis in camel milk was 8%. Most (12.5%) of the positive samples were from Dadaab Sub-county while the rest of the positive samples were from Fafi (5.9%) and Balambala (5.9%) sub-counties. All the 54 samples obtained from Garissa market were negative of brucellosis. Of the total (118) bacteria isolates, those from the farm level were 68.6% and from market were 31.2%. The bacteria isolated from the 104 milk samples were Pseudomonas spp. (32.2%), Salmonella spp. (30.5%), Staphylococcus spp (21.2%), Eschericia coli (8.5%) and Shigella spp. (7.6%). The risk factors that significantly (p<0.05) associated brucellosis were: age of lactating camels (higher in camels aged above 20 years), herd size (higher in camels from herd sizes of between 30-50 camels) and herding of camels with other livestock (higher in camels kept with other livestock).

Conclusion: In conclusion, a few milk samples from camels in Garissa County were found to have brucellosis and were heavily infected with bacteria which can cause mastitis. Considering that most people in the study area drank raw milk, spread of these bacteria to man is a high possibility and thus animal and public health officers should implement one health disease control strategies.