Open Access Short Research Article

First Detection of Mycobacterium sp. in Wastewater in Abidjan (Yopougon) Cote d’Ivoire

Vakou N’dri Sabine, Coulibaly-Kalpy Julien, Amon Lydie Nina, Bernaud Nicolas, Dosso Mireille, Djaman Allico Joseph

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i230167

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and worldwide, under certain environmental conditions, they could be responsible for skin diseases or pulmonary lesions. In Ivory Coast, Buruli ulcers endemic country, very little information concerning the epidemiology of NTM in Cote d'Ivoire is known, this ignorance has led to an underestimation of its prevalence in the environment.

Aims: The objective of this study was to characterize strains of environmental mycobacteria in wastewater located in urban areas in Abidjan (Yopougon) Côte d'Ivoire.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Yopougon (Selmer). This site is considered to be Buruli ulcer non-endemic zone according to the national program on fight against Buruli ulcer in Côte d’Ivoire. However, all biological aspect of this work was carried out at the Pastor Institute of Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: Wastewater samples were collected at the surfaces at Yopougon using the technique described by Britton and Gresson. In the laboratory, these collected samples were treated according to the method described by Stinear et al. and Kankya et al. consisting of decontamination, neutralization followed by culture.

Classification of species was done according to the method described by Runyon and collaborators. Biochemical identification of mycobacteria was done according to the method described by Metchock.

Results: A total of 32 samples were collected, 8 water samples at each sampling site. After decontamination and culture, specimens grew on Lowenstein-Jensen medium after 7 days (at 37°C and 32°C) and revealed small, smooth, nonpigmented colonies. Smears confirmed the presence of variably acid-fast organisms. Biochemical traits of the isolates revealed, colony grown on Middlebrook agar 7H11 (at 37°C and 32°C); catalase (+); agar (+) (at 37°C and 32°C ); citrate  (-); mannitol  (-).

Conclusion: This work is one of the first study focusing on Mycobacteria in wastewater in Abidjan. The isolation of Mycobacterium sp., an environmental pathogenic organism, supports the hypothesis of possible colonization of urban wastewater by pathogenic mycobacteria. Further studies are needed to verify the involvement of this specie in mycobacterial infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ethanol Extract of Bridelia ferruginea (W.) on the Haematological and Histopathological Parameters in Swiss Albino Rats Infected with Salmonella typhi

Busayo Temitope Akinyele, Ebenezer Oluyemi Dada

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i230165

Aims: To study the effects of ethanol stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on the hematological and histopathological parameters in Swiss albino rats infected with Salmonella typhi.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Between January, 2018 and June, 2018.

Methodology: Fresh stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea was collected, dried, powered, and extracted using 70% ethanol. Twenty – seven rats of the same age between 90 -120 g in weight were selected and divided into 9 groups containing three each. The infectivity dose (ID) was determined with the clinical S. typhi. The dose of the B. ferruginea stem bark extract (50-5000 mg/kg) used in this study was administered orally for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, the rats fasted overnight. Then blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological studies and thereafter sacrificed. Organs (liver and kidney) were excised for relative organ weight analysis and histopathological studies.

Results: The infectious dose (ID) of S. typhi on experimental rats in this study was 3.2x106cfu/ml. The weights of liver and kidney in all groups under observation slightly increases (treated with ciprofloxacin and ethanol extract) when compared to the control(uninfected) except for the infected/treated where the weight was significantly reduced. However, The Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) of rats treated with a higher dose of the ethanol (5000mg/ml) extract increased significantly (p<0.05) when compared to the control(uninfected) while the infected but not treated reduced significantly(p<0.05) when compared with the uninfected, infected and treated with Ciprofloxacin and extract groups. The infected and untreated group has the highest reduction in red blood cell counts(RBC) with 3.40 g/l respectively which were significantly different at p  when compared to other treatment groups while a non-significant decrease was observed in the Red Blood Cell (RBC) of rats administered with various concentrations of ethanol extract and ciprofloxacin after treatment. White Blood Cells (WBC) of rats given the extract significantly reduced when compared with the control (un-infected) group while there was no significant difference in the lymphocyte count of rat administered the extract of B. ferruginea and ciprofloxacin. Neutrophils of rats in all groups significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the monocyte and eosinophil level were not significantly different from the control. There was dilation of sinusoids depletion separating the hepatic cord in place lined by kupffer cells and not necrosis with possible deposition of immunological materials observed in the liver of rats infected/treated with the extract at various concentrations. Similarly, there were loss of bowman capsule, severe karyolysis and several tubular drainages with possible deposition of immunological materials in the glomeruli basement of the kidney after treatment with the extract of B. ferruginea

Conclusion: The stem bark ethanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea can be found relatively safe. However, excessive use might be toxic to the to the kidney and the liver.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Preservative Efficacy of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Psidium guajava L. Leaf Extracts on Capsicum annuum L. (Bell Pepper)

Justina Folashade Oyun, Victor Olusegun Oyetayo

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 19-33
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i230166

This study assessed the preservative efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Psidium guajava (Guava) leaf extracts on Capsicum annuum (Bell pepper). The phytochemical compositions of A. indica and P. guajava leaf extracts were determined using standard methods. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponnin, anthraquinone tannin, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoid and glycosides in ethanol extracts of Azadirachta Indica A. Juss. and Psidium guajava L. leaves and tannin, terpenoid, flavonoid and glycosides are present in n-hexane extracts of the selected plants. Among the phytochemicals identified, Terpenoid was the highest in value (25.79mg/g) and saponnin has the least value (3.27 mg/g). The ethanolic extracts of Guava had the highest inhibition against the growth of Staphyloccoccus aureus (35.00±1.15 mm).The n-hexane extracts of Neem leaves had the lowest inhibition against the growth of Staphyloccoccus sp (8.00±0.57 mm). Ethanolic extract has the highest antifungal effect against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (58.66±0.90 mm). Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Psidium guajava L. leaves are more effective than the n-hexane extracts of P. guajava and A. indica leaves because it effectively inhibited the growth of the microorganisms. The Capsicum annuum L. fruits coated with selected plant extracts were preserved for a longer period than the uncoated fruits. All these results therefore suggest that the leaf extracts of P. guajava and A. indica can be used as bio preservatives for the extension of the shelf life of C. annuum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Congenital Rubella Infections among the Pregnant Women at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

Madiha Sattar, Urooj Ibrahim, Sehrish Ilyas, Safia Bibi, Ghulam Fatima

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i230168

Introduction: Rubella virus is an important human pathogen that causes an acute and contagious disease known as rubella and also, causes congenital rubella syndrome more commonly occur during the first trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of CRS varies in different populations and the highest burden found in developing countries where rubella vaccination is not included in their national immunization programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the burden of CRS-related birth defects and its incidence in the pre-vaccine era in Karachi Pakistan.

Objective: The aim of the study to determine the rate of congenital rubella infection among the pregnant women at a Tertiary Care Hospital.

Methods: The retrospective descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in different departments of Dr Ruth PFAU Civil Hospital Karachi, including Eye OPD and Pediatric units from Jan 2016 till December 2019. The medical records of clinically suspected infants or confirmed cases were reviewed. The confirmed cases were positive for maternal IgM rubella antibodies and tested by ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbant assay) where as the rubella IgM antibodies in suspected infants were lost to follow. Inclusion criteria were infants admitted less than or equal to 1 year of age with history of either congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma, pigmented retinopathy, congenital heart defects like (patent ductus arteriosus, periphery pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects), hearing impairment, deafness or microcephaly were included in the study.

Results: Out of total 142 infants that were admitted in the hospital during 4 years period from 2016 to 2019 only 7 (4.93%) infants were diagnosed as confirmed cases of congenital rubella infection where as 14 (9.86%) infants were found to be clinically suspected. The ocular manifestation were more common among 6 infants which presented with cataract (85.7%) and 2 infants presented with pigmented retinopathy (28.6%). Besides this other manifestations like developmental delay were seen in only 2 patients DD (28.6%) and 3 infants presented with congenital heart diseases CHD (42.9%). The combinations of clinical features of congenital heart defect with cataract and developmental delay were seen in only 1 infant whereas cataract with pigmented retinopathy and developmental delay was seen in 1 infant and 2 infants presented with combination of congenital heart defects and cataracts.

Conclusion: Our study reported the rate of congenital rubella infection was 4.93% in a four years study period. Therefore, with a rising trend in congenital rubella infections in the last past years there is a need to built strong surveillance system and to introduce a childhood immunization in the national immunization program to eliminate the Rubella infection.

Open Access Review Article

The Battle with COVID-19: Insight on External Intervention and Future Vaccination

Ashraf S. Hakim, Sohier M. Syame, Mohamed M. Shehata, Ahmed Taha A. Sayed

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 46-61
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i230169

The battle against the pandemic novel coronavirus infection (namely COVID-19) that gravely hurts human health is a global mission for all humanity. Currently, there are no specific COVID-19 therapies; immune-suppressors as corticosteroids, protease inhibitor antivirals, monoclonal antibody analogues as well as prospective plasma therapy. Because of the possible adverse effects and continuous emerging doubts about the drugs combating COVID-19; certain medicinal plants and dietary herbs are potentially used to prevent or cure COVID-19. Nowadays investigations and clinical trials focused on development of safe and effective either drugs or vaccines to control even stop COVID-19 in near future. Providing comprehensive spotlights on virus pathogenesis, host cell interaction, immunological response, potential therapy, and vaccine emergence for COVID-19 is discussed in this article.