Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State Southwestern Nigeria

C. A. Ologunde, C. O. Anidiobu, V. O. Oluwasusi, T. M. Ilesanmi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130198

Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major devastating infectious diseases African countries and other regions of the world. TB is a potentially serious infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs. While HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system; which if left untreated, can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thus, this study was carried out to monitor the prevalence of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) situation in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 191 participants were enrolled in this study. Blood and sputum samples were used in screening of HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis respectively. 102(53.4%) participants were confirmed HIV positive cases and 89(46.6%) participants were confirmed as M. tuberculosis-positive cases. The rate of tuberculosis was higher among women than among men and prevalence of HIV was slightly higher among men than among female. The study shows that age group 26 – 30 years have the highest rate of tuberculosis and age group 36 – 40 years have the highest rate of HIV cases while the highest number of TB with HIV co-infection 34 (17.8%) were gotten from the age group 36 – 40years. The rate at which the prevalence of tuberculosis, HIV and their co-infection are rising is due to various challenges facing its eradication. Adequate resource mobilization and effective spending is needed to achieve success. In addition, efforts should be made to improve the surveillance system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Methanolic Extract for Antimicrobial Activity of Hyphaene thebaica L. Fruit Pulp from Sudanese Folklore

Emad M. Abdallah

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130199

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum), a famous natural product in Sudan.

Methods: Agar-well diffusion test and minimum inhibition diffusion test (MIC).

Results: The investigation revealed that the extract showed no antifungal effect against Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. While it exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1026 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145. Whereas, weak antibacterial activity was recorded with Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Escherichia coli ATCC 1637.

Conclusion: The fruit pulp of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum) has good antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, the consumption of this fruit would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antibacterial activity, and further studies using different bacterial strains and clinical pathogens are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Microbial Loads and Physico-Chemicals of Cassava Mill Effluent Simulated Soil

Bassey Etta Agbo, Daniel Offiong Etim, Alfred Young Itah, Akan A. Brooks

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 13-26
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130200

Evaluation of microbial loads and physico-chemicals of cassava mill effluent simulated soil was carried out using standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. This was to determine the effect of cassava mill effluent (CME) on rhizosphere microbial loads, physicochemical properties, nitrogenous salt and heavy metals. The results showed that CME effect on the physicochemical determinants (pH, Ca, Mg, K) and heavy metal determinant (Fe, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb and Mn) was concentration dependents. The nitrogenous salts (NO3, NH4+ and NO2) levels progressively increased with no significant differences (p>0.05 ANOVA). The microbial isolates were: Saccharomyces sp, Mucorindicus, Fusarium sp and Gliocladium sp for the fungal group. The bacterial group were Chromobacterium sp, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Acinetobacter sp and Escherichia coli while the nitrogen-fixing bacterial group were Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp., Frankia sp., Bradyrhizobium sp., Hebaspirillum sp., Cyanobacteria (or blue green algae), Anabaena sp, Nostoc sp., Clostridium sp. and Rhizobium sp. There was no significant differences (p>0.05) in the rhizosphere microbial load across the concentration gradient at the CME-simulated plot phyto-remediated by Centrosema pubesscens and Calopogonium mucunoides. Agricultural wastes such as cassava mill effluent should be properly treated before discharging to the environment in other to prevent the loss of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total heterotrophic bacterial genera that could be of immense importance to man.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Nasal Cavities of MOUAU Students

Onyinyechi J. Omaba, Chukwuma G. Udensi, Blessing C. Uwakwe, Emmanuel K. Amanze, Ifunaya M. Okoh

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130201

Aim: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal cavity of MOUAU students.

Methods: The nasal specimens were evaluated using standard microbiological techniques and methicillin resistance test was checked for all isolates of Staphylococcus species by the disc diffusion method.

Results: A total of Eleven (11) Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from forty (40) nasal samples of MOUAU students i.e. four (4) from female and seven (7) from male. This study also showed that the highest number and percentage of Staphylococcus aureus isolates was observed in the male nasal samples 7(30.4%), while the lowest isolate was recorded in female nasal samples 4(23.5%). About 21(52.5%) of the 40 samples showed no traces of Staphylococcus specie. However, the drug susceptibility profile of bacterial isolate from nasal samples reveals varying percentage of sensitivity and resistance to the antibiotics. From this study, Ofloxacin (5 mcg) and Gentamicin (10 mcg) exhibited high percentage of sensitivity against the Staphylococus isolates at 10(90.9%) each. Cefuroxime (30 mcg) and Ceftazidime (30 mcg) showed high level of resistance against the Staphylococcus aureus isolates at 11(100%). No resistance to Ofloxacin (5 mcg) was noted. This study also revealed that 72.7% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the nasal cavity of healthy male and female students of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), showed multiple resistance to the antibiotics used.

Conclusion: This study highlights the need to discourage the misuse of antibiotics and to implement strategies that could help eliminate of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. This will help to prevent severe Staphylococcus aureus infections in our environments. Also, it was report that Ofloxacin (5 mcg) and Gentamicin (10 mcg) antibiotics could be an alternative choice to use and to control MRSA infection as an effective antibacterial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tuberculosis/HIV Co-infection among Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) in Gombe State, Nigeria

Lynn Maori, Kabiru Mohammed, Garba Ibrahim

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130202

Background: Tuberculosis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential for early disease management. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that gradually attacks the immune system and the immune system is our body’s natural defence against illness. Co-infection of TB and HIV is when someone has both HIV and TB infections. This study determined the TB/HIV Co-infection among IDP’s.

Methodology: A total of 130 sputum samples from suspected tuberculosis patients were examined from August 2020 to September 2020.

Result: Fifty-nine patients 59(45.4%) were males and seventy-one 71 patients (54.6%) were females. Seventeen patients (13.07%) had tuberculosis. Ten (10) cases of the TB patients were found to be co-infected with HIV. The CD4+ cell count of the TB/HIV co-infected patients falls below 250 cells/mm3 compared to the mono-infected patients who had CD4+ above 250 cells/mm3.

Conclusion: This study showed that TB/HIV coinfection was associated with age group 21-40 years was high.