Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points on Harvested Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea gasar) from Selected Sources in Rivers State

G. Emoghene, B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere, O. C. Eruteya

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230203

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the hazards associated with oyster from two communities in Rivers State and provides an insight at improving the safety of oyster through the application of the hazards analysis critical control points (HACCP) concept in processing freshly harvested mangrove oysters.

Study Design:  This work is based on completely randomized design with two replications and the average values calculated for mean comparison.

Place and Duration of Study: Food and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, between October 2018 and March, 2019.

Methodology: The proximate composition, pH and bacterial profile of oysters prepared conventionally and that prepared employing critical control points concept determined using standard methods.

Results: The proximate composition of oyster meat revealed the following: moisture (83.73%), protein (8.36%), lipid (1.28%), fiber (1.04%), carbohydrate (2.12%) and ash content (3.47%). The average aerobic plate count for Abuloma and Okrika were 5.69 and 6.98 log10CFU/g respectively while coliform count was 5.37 and 5.02log10CFU/g respectively. Two bacterial genera (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) were isolated from oyster processed with HACCP approach at the last critical control point 7, whereas, nine bacterial genera (Bacillus, Streptococcus, Vibrio, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas) were isolated from the conventionally processed oysters.

Conclusion: The HACCP concept gave an improved microbiological quality of oyster meat and the safety of oyster and potential economic value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Microplastic Degrading Potential of Fungal Isolates from an Estuary in Rivers State, Nigeria

Janet Olufunmilayo Williams, Nosayame Thomas Osahon

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230204

The potential of fungi as bio degraders of micro plastic particles was assessed using standard microbiological and Fourier transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis methods. The highest mean Total Heterotrophic fungal (THF) count of 4.24x104 cfu/ml was obtained with the least THF (2.72x104 cfu/ml) recorded during the dry season. Mean hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungal (HUF) count was highest (1.78x104 cfu/ml) during the wet period while the least HUF count (1.46x104 cfu/ml) was recorded during the dry period. Spectra of FTIR showed that the water contained microplastic particles in these proportions; polyethylene of low density (LDPE) 0.01%, 0.11% protein, 0.15% polystyrene, 0.37% polyamide, 1.14% cellulose, 1.21% polyurethane, 1.90% polyvinyl chloride, 3.11% polyester and 92% polypropylene, respectively. Species of fungi identified were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium spp., Microsporum canis, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among the fungal isolates, A. niger and A. fumigatus were most active in degrading the micro plastic (polypropylene) with mean % weight loss of 71.09% and 53.09%, respectively while the least active was Penicillium spp. with a mean % weight loss of 28.64% during the study period. The order of degradation was Aspergillus niger > A. fumigatus > A. nidulans > Fusarium spp. > Rhizopus spp. > Microsporum canis > Mucor spp. > Penicillium spp. The potential to degrade micro plastic particles by these fungi can be harnessed. The foremost active fungi degrading potentials are as follows: A. niger (71.1%) and A. fumigatus (53.1%). The study has shown that isolates of fungi from Ohiakwu River in Nigeria possess the ability to degrade micro plastic (polypropylene) particles. Therefore, this research is of tremendous importance for industrial development and additionally for future research purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activities of Honey Bee Extracts against Bacterial Isolates of Wound Infections

O. A. Ayodele, J. O. Aribisala, A. T. Oseni, M. K. Oladunmoye

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230205

Microorganisms most especially bacteria, continue to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents; hence novel sources of antibiotics are urgently needed to reduce this problem. This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activities of ethanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Apis mellifera (honey bee) on isolates of wound infections. The isolates used in this study were procured from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) and confirmed using morphological and biochemical tests. The isolates used include; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. Honey bees were collected from an apitherapist at Sunshine honey and agro foods, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. The whole insect was used for in vitro antibacterial evaluation of the isolates using agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic extract of A. mellifera had the highest inhibitory activity with mean zones of inhibition ranging from 7.40 mm to 21.67 mm, chloroform extracts had moderate inhibitory activity ranging from 4.63 mm to 10.03 mm while the aqueous extract had the least activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 3.00 mm to 6.30 mm. However, no antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa for all the extracts. It is concluded that extracts of honey bees most especially the ethanolic extract have antibacterial activity and thus could be a potential antibacterial agent against isolates of wound infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Properties of Different Husk Extracts of Cocos nucifera (Linn) in South Western Nigeria

B. A. Erinle, A. O. Ajayi, O. R. Osuntokun

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 26-30
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230206

Aim: The husk of coconut is part of drupe which have enormous benefit to humanity. However, what constitute the antimicrobial activity has not been fully investigated, and this is the basis for the study.

Materials and Methods:  The husk of coconut collected from local growers subjected to extraction process. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against bacterial strains; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella aerogene, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae by agar well diffusion method using n-hexane, ethanol and distilled water as solvents.

Results: Aqueous extracts of coconut showed inhibitory effect against the different tested bacteria organisms with variable zone of inhibition range 7 to 22 mm.

Conclusion: The aqueous extracts of coconut exhibited the presence of   highly effective   bioactive ingredients in these extracts. This can be identified, assay and characterize to be used as synthetic drug which would be available for treatment of bacterial infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Biodegradation and Release Pattern of Heavy Metal from Spent Laptop Batteries using Pseudomonas and Bacillus Species in Freshwater

Renner Renner Nrior, Blessing Chika Nlem

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 31-49
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230207

Aim: To evaluate Enhanced-Biodegradation and Release Pattern of Heavy Metal from Spent Laptop Batteries using Pseudomonas and Bacillus species in Freshwater

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Freshwater was collected from Isiokpo River, Isiokpo town in Ikwerre L.G.A, Rivers state, Nigeria within co-ordinates 50 02’14’’N and 60 54’50’’E, These samples were transported with ice pack to the Microbiology Laboratory of the Rivers State University, for analyses within 6 hours. Spent laptop batteries were obtained from Ogbunabali Laptops Shoping Complex Garrison area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Three sets of the brand of battery (HP, Dell and Acer).

Methodology: A total of twelve (12) experimental set-up with three controls (each of the three laptop batteries in freshwater without augmenting organisms) while the other nine were enhanced with augmenting microbes. In step 1, Stock toxicant solution was prepared by soaking the spent Laptop batteries ( of average weight of 300-400g,  in two (2) liters of sterilized freshwater in a sterile trough with vented top for aeration, of dimension 12 x 7.5 x 6cm separately for each set-up, The soaking (Toxicant preparation) lasted for 3 months (about 92 days). In step 2, Five hundred milliliters (500ml) of each set-up was transferred into sterile Conical flask plugged with cotton wool perforated for aeration; each was inoculated with five milliliter (5 ml) of the test organisms (Pseudomonas and Bacillus species broth, singly and consortium) separately and monitored  for duration 0, 30, 60 and 90 days respectively using the spread plate techniques. The bacterial cultures were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours while fungal cultures were incubated for three (3) days at 35°C. Parameters monitored were Heavy metal (Lithium, Cadmium, Chromium, iron and Lead) concentration, Total Heterotrophic Bacteria, Total Heterotrophic Fungi, Lithium Utilizing Bacteria, Cadmium Utilizing Bacteria, Chromium Utilizing Bacteria, Iron Utilizing Bacteria, Lead Utilizing Bacteria, Lithium Utilizing Fungi, Cadmium Utilizing Fungi, Chromium Utilizing Fungi, Iron Utilizing Fungi, Lead Utilizing Fungi.

Results: Enhanced biodegradation and release pattern of heavy metal from spent laptop batteries using Pseudomonas and Bacillus species in freshwater was evaluated and the concentration of heavy metals (Lithium, Cadmium, Chromium, iron and Lead) found associated with the spent laptop batteries (HP, Dell and Acer) were increasing simultaneously with time in all set-ups from day 1 to day 90. The control (without augmenting microbes) has the highest concentration of heavy metals from day 1 to 90 followed by set-ups augmented with Bacillus specie followed by set-ups augmented with Pseudomonas specie, least in set-ups augmented with the consortium of the 2 isolates. The changes in concentration of heavy metals during biodegradation of which Cd < Cr <   Li < Fe < Pb respectively, for all spent laptop batteries used in this study. Percentage (%) degradation potential of the consortium of Bacillus species and Pseudomonas species for Li-HP, Li-Dell, and Li-Acer shows a higher percentage (%) release of 22.68%, 37.63% and 24.22% respectively as compared to the individual strains of for Bacillus species and Pseudomonas species. With Pseudomonas species having 10.03%, 18.65%, and 11.24%, followed by Bacillus species having 8.46%, 12.49%, and 7.20% for Li-HP, Li-Dell, and Li-Acer respectively.

Conclusion: The study identifies the degradability potential of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species to degrade spent laptop battery in freshwater. it shows that the consortium was able to degrade the batteries better than the individual strains. It is recommended that spent laptop batteries discharged into aquatic environment should be enhanced with broth culture of eco-friendly species of Pseudomonas and Bacillus for quick degradation.