Open Access Original Research Article

Potential for Neutralizing Chicken Egg Yolk (Igy) Generated against Mastitis Bovine, Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae

R. Mahenthiran, K. V. Sri Alamelu, Sornambiga Ravi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330208

Introduction: Mastitis is a complex disease, defined as an inflammation of parenchymal cells of mammary glands. It is a most common disease in dairy cattle. More than 250 microbes are found to cause mastitis. Recent report shows that total loss of about $2295/month in worldwide due to mastitis.

Researchgap/Challenges: Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) provides an inexpensive and effective source of antibodies for the passive immunization of animals. It is a promising alternative for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, and has shown to be effective against a number of pathogens.

Aim: To develop an inexpensive and effective source of antibodies by using chicken egg yolk against mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine.

Methodology: Bovine mastitis infected milk sample was collected in and around Coimbatore, India. Initial step was to isolate and identify the microbes like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from milk samples of cattle infected with mastitis. Then to prepare and standardize the whole cell antigen of Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by generation of antibodies against the prepared antigens in 21-weeks old white Leghorn chickens. Next step includes purification and characterization of anti-Klebsiella pneumoniae IgY and anti - Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies from the egg yolk of immunized chickens. Finally, to evaluate the specificity of the purified IgY by Indirect ELISA and to measure the inhibitory activity of the IgY against the pathogens by growth inhibition assay.

Results: Cell antigen was prepared. Anti- Klebsiella pneumoniae IgY and anti - Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY were recovered from chicken egg yolk that was detected by protein estimation (Lowry et al technique) and ELISA. In Lowry et al method (1951) total anti P. aeruginosa IgY was found to be 0.511 mg ml-1 and total anti K. pneumoniae IgY was found to be 0.522 mg ml-1.

Conclusion: Generated antibodies were identified as very specific to the immunization antigen. Based on invitro studies generated antibodies were specific to immunized antigen. It concluded that it will be useful or therapeutic after further conformation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from the Recreational Sites of Two Rivers in Orashi Region, Rivers State, Nigeria

T. Sampson, L. K. Giami, J. A. Okedike

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330209

Recreational water bodies are water bodies used for recreational activities such as swimming, surfing, water skiing, water diving and sailing. They include rivers, lakes, beaches, spas and swimming pools. This work was therefore aimed at determining the bacteriological profile of recreational water bodies in Orashi region of Rivers State, Nigeria. Surface water samples were collected from two different sites (Orashi River, Mbiama and Sombreiro River, Ahoada) using standard microbiological methods. Upstream, midstream and downstream samples were collected for a period of three months at monthly interval. Standard plate counts were used for total heterotrophic and coliform bacterial counts using standard microbiological media. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 4.1X104 to 9.5X104 for Orashi River and 3.0X103 to 4.0X103 for Sombreiro River. A significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) however, existed between total heterotrophic bacterial counts of the samples collected from Orashi River, while no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the total heterotrophic bacterial counts of samples from Sombreiro River. In the comparative analysis of the samples from the two water bodies, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was recorded in the total coliform count in Orashi and Sombreiro Rivers. The phenotypic characterization identified the isolates to include Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp., with Klebsiella pneumoniae as the most occurring (26.1%). Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are known for their pathogenic potentials, hence their presence in these recreational sites are of public health importance. Provision of standard recreational facilities in localities will however reduce the dependency on river sites for recreational activities, and as well prevent recreational associated illnesses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts of Calotropis gigantea (Giant Milk Weed)

O. O. Julius, V. O. Oluwasusi, M. F. Ibiyemi, F. B. Oluwatobi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330210

The root and leaf of were screened for its antimicrobial and phytochemical activities. The solvents used for the roots and leaves extraction were ethanol and water. The extracts were tested against infectious disease causing bacterial such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiellaaerogenesand α-haemolysin using the well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts of root of Calotropis gigantea against all the test bacteria ranged from 6.0 mm to 20.0 mm diameter zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extract of root of Calotropis gigantea inhibition against some the test microbe ranges from 6 mm to 14.0 mm diameter inhibitory zone. The ethanolic leaf extract of C. gigantea also showed an inhibition of 8mm to 20.0 mm. In present study, bacterial extract showed a varying zone of inhibition of the growth of tested organism than ethanol. Phytochemical properties of root and leaves of Calotropis gigantea obtain from ethanol and aqueous extracts were investigated. The results confirmed that presence of antibacterial activity and phytochemical in the shade dried extract of Calotropis gigantea against the human pathogenic organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Culture-Dependent Evaluation of Microbial and Proximate Composition of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) African Salad Sold at Nkpolu-Oroworukwo Ultra-Modern Market (Mile 3, Diobu), Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Lawrence O. Amadi, Christian C. Nwankwo

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330211

This study attempts to evaluate culture-dependent microbial and proximate composition of African salad (Abacha) sold at Nkpolu Oroworukwo (mile 3) market, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples were bought from stationary vendors at market within the months of March, 2019 to March, 2021. Garnished African salad (GAS) and ungarnished African salad (UAS) samples were determined by standard microbiological techniques whereas proximate composition (PC) was analysed by the methods of Association of Official of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Total aerobic plate counts (TAPCs), total coliform counts (TCCs) and fungal counts (FCs) of GAS were higher 4.5x104CFU/g, 5.3x104CFU/g and 1.1x104CFU/g respectively as against 3.4x104CFU/g, 3.8x104 CFU/g and 0.8x104CFU/g for UAG. Microfloral diversity were more in GAS with species such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella sp., Micrococcus sp.. Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Saccharomyces and Candida species than in UAS. Nutrient composition, energy (116.00Kcal/100g) and pH (6.4) values were higher in GAS. In contrast, only the moisture (62.52±0.53%) and carbohydrate (23.21±0.21%) contents were slightly higher in UAS than those in GAS. The study revealed that African salad’ bioburden was slightly above the microbiological standard limits of International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF) and (Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) for RTE foods for mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB)/TAPC but exceeded that for total coliforms. However, the microbes detected are likely aetiologic agents of several food borne diseases (FBDs) in human and animal pathologies. Therefore, adequate surveillance, monitoring and compliance with hygienic practices and environmental sanitary measures during processing, fortification and distribution should be enforced by regulatory agencies and stakeholders for wholesome and palatable RTE foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Are Street Foods Safe: Detection of Escherichia coli in Street Foods Sauces

Flyndon Mark S. Dagalea, Karina Milagros C. Lim, Manuela Cecille G. Vicencio, Jonsel Juris C. Ballicud, Moises Ronn B. Burac, Justine Jane B. Vibar, Vincenette Brea E. Villadolid

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330212

Good manufacturing practices (GMP) is the key in quality food services. This is to ensure that the food our body take in is safe from harmful bacteria that may cause disorder in its normal function. In this research, detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was done in the sauces of the street foods vendor at the University of Eastern Philippines. The result of this study will be of use to the local units that need to regulate the franchise of these street foods; to ensure that safety in the delivery of food products. Samples were collected from the stalls of the street vendors and were subjected to microbial analysis. Results showed that E. coli is present in the street sauces but in minimal count. Though the count is far from the threshold, vendors must consider increasing their knowledge and practices with GMP to ensure safe and quality food delivery.