Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Sensitivity Profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Wound Swabs and Urine Samples from University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Nigeria

Mercy Adewumi Alabi, Michael Tosin Bayode, Jeremiah Abiola Adesanya, Ikeoluwa Feyisayo Aina

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430213

Aim: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enumerated from wound swabs and urine samples from the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Nigeria.

Place of Study: University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January and May, 2019.

Methodology: Wound swabs and urine samples were collected from patients of University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure. Enumeration and identification of P. aeruginosa isolates was employed. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted on the enumerated P. aeruginosa strains from both clinical specimens via standard disc diffusion protocol. The susceptibility and resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa isolates was established utilizing clinical laboratory standard institute (CLSI) standard.

Results: Ciprofloxacin was observed to display the highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 17.00±1.00 mm for P.  aeruginosa isolate 1 and likewise the highest ZOI of 24.50±1.50 mm for P. aeruginosa strain 3. Fourteen strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited highest resistance to septrin and augmentin for wound swabs as all 19 of the bacterial strains also exhibited the highest resistance to septrin, chloramphenicol, augmentin and streptomycin for urine specimens. Ten (10) of P. aeruginosa strains from wound swabs exhibited the highest intermediate susceptibility to perfloxacin. Eleven (11) strains of P. aeruginosa from urine specimens exhibited the highest intermediate susceptibility on sparfloxacin. All 19 strains of P. aeruginosa from urine specimens were susceptible to amoxicillin and gentamicin as completely minimal susceptibility was recorded for P. aeruginosa associated with wound swabs.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the high resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa associated with wound swabs and urine samples and emphasizes the need for the regimentation of over-the-counter remedy and antibiotic susceptibility appraisal of anti-pseudomonal drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bacterial Species in Patients with Skin Infection and their Antibiogram

Immaculata U. Nwankwo, Kelechi C. Edward, Chinedu N. Nwoba, Chinyere V. Okwudiri

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430214

Introduction: The skin is a barrier that limits invasion and growth of pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial species in patients with skin infection and their antibiogram were evaluated for the presence of inhabiting bacteria.

Method: The sample obtained with swab sticks were streaked on their respective culture plates containing nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and blood agar, incubated 370 for 24h. The recovered bacteria after incubation were characterized and identified according to standard microbiological criteria.

Results: Five bacteria species were isolated which includes Staphylococus aureus; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella specie, Proteus sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococus aureus (33.03%) had the highest percentage occurrence while Proteus Sp (9.17%) had the lowest percentage occurrence. The highest number of isolates were recovered from male patients (61.47%). Age wise the least percentage of isolates were gotten from age group 31-40 (1.83%) while the highest was obtained from those within the age range of 11-20 (40.37%) followed by 1-10 years of age (25.69%). More isolates were recovered from in-patients (68.81%) than from Out-patients (31.19%). The antibiotic sensitivity test showed that Klebsiella sp, Proteus spp and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitivity to all the antibiotics tested while pseudomonas aeruginosa had 30% activity (sensitivity to only 3 drugs) for the antibiotics used in this study.

Conclusion: From this study, it can be said that Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are implicated in the skin infections in humans and their presence if not treated will lead to long term disease in human affected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Air Pollution and Health Hazard Associated with Selected Sawmills in Port Harcourt Metropolis

H. O. Stanley, O. A. Inuope

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 17-34
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430215

This study aimed to assess air pollution and health hazards around selected sawmills within Port Harcourt metropolis. The physicochemical parameters of the air at the sawmilling sites were determined using onsite air quality analysers. The microbiological parameters were determined using the settling plate technique and the isolates identified based on their cultural and biochemical characteristics. Results showed that estimates of the monitored physicochemical parameters varied with prevalent human activity, time of exposure and atmospheric conditions. At Rumosi, SO2, VOCs and TSP with a concentration 1.250 ppm, 550.500 ppm, 323.200 µg/m3 respectively exceeded the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEv) & World Health Organization (WHO) limit irrespective of the atmospheric condition, time and day of sampling, while the temperature, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 with a concentration of 39.450oC, 209 µg/m3, 348.350 µg/m3, 0.181ppm respectively varied and was within the FMEv acceptable standard. At SARS Road Sawmill 1, VOCs, PM10 and TSP exceeded the FMEv limit while at SARS Road Sawmill 2, SO2, NO2, VOCs, PM10 and TSP exceeded the FMEv limits.  Microbiological analysis revealed that the bioaerosols contained 12 bacterial genera (Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Providencia, Shigella, Enterobacter and Bacillus) and 7 fungal genera (Penicillium,  Fusarium, Geotrichium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus and Trichophyton and Aspergillus) with total heterotrophic bacterial count (THBC) and total fungal count (TFC) ranging from 2711-26980 CFU/m3 and 373-12851 CFU/m3 respectively. The study also showed that sawmills within Port Harcourt do not pay much attention to the provision and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), as they were generally not provided. The sawmill workers commonly reported cough and chest pain which they admitted could be associated with their jobs. This study has shown that air around sawmill sites contains inhalable chemical and biological agents which could cause respiratory problems to workers with prolonged exposure and dose response. Sawmill operators should provide and enforce the use of PPE within their facility. It is recommended that sawmill workers and other visitors wear personal protective gadgets in the processing area of the sawmill factories. Further study to relate workers symptoms with emission is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Pneumonia Patients that Attend Madonna Catholic Hospital Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Immaculata U. Nwankwo, Kelechi C. Edward, Chinedu N. Nwoba, Moses O. Ike

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430216

Aim: To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus pnenumoniae in pnenumonia patients attending Madonna Catholic Hospital, Umuahia; Abia State.

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of Streptococcus pnenumoniae among patients in Madonna Catholic Hospital, Umuahia. It lasted for a period of three months (September 2019 to January 2020). Standard microbiological techniques were used to evaluate 60 sputum samples collected from pneumonia patients and the modified Kirby-Buar disk diffusion technique was used to test the sensitive pattern of the isolates to some antibiotics.

Results: A total of thirty-three (33) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were recovered from sixty (60) sputum samples from pneumonia patients. 17(51%) were gotten from male and 16 (49%) of isolates were gotten from female. The highest frequency of occurrence among the age groups was observed with adults (19-59 years) (34.4%) followed by adolescence (13-18 years) (33.3%), while the least frequency was from those of senior adults (>60) (9.1%). However, the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the sputum samples shows varying degrees of sensitivity and resistance to the antibiotics. From the study, Streptomycin and Cotrimoxazole showed a high percentage of sensitivity against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates at 78.8% and 72.7% respectively. The highest percentage of resistance was observed with Gentamicin and Tetracycline at 42.4% each.

Conclusion: This study highlights that there was no distinct variation in occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in relation to gender and age. As most patients were hospitalized in separated wards, this suggests a role for local dissemination of this bacterium in the respective wards rather than age or gender specific predilection. This study also suggests that streptomycin and Cotrimoxazole could be a drug of choice in the treatment of pneumonia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality of Mono-pumps and Boreholes used as Sources of Domestic Water Supply in Abonnema Rivers State, Nigeria

Douglas Salome Ibietela, Alambo, Ayaba Alabo, Obire, Omokaro

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430217

Aim: This study was carried out to compare the bacteriological and physicochemical qualities of boreholes and mono-pumps water samples used as sources of domestic water supply, in Abonnema Community, Akuku-Toru Local Government Area, Rivers State.

Methodology: A total of forty-eight water samples were collected twice monthly for four months and evaluated. The bacteriological parameters such as total heterotrophic bacterial, total coliform, faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella - Shigella and Pseudomonas were analyzed using standard microbiological methods.  The coliform was determined using the Most Probable number technique while, the physicochemical parameters were determined using Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater.

Results: The total heterotrophic bacterial, coliform, faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella-Shigella and Pseudomonas counts of the borehole samples ranged from 7.2×102 - 2.4×103, 2.3×102–4.0×102, 3.6×102-4.8×102, 7.3×102-1.4×103, 2.1×102-2.8×102 and 0.0×100Cfu/ml, respectively. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts, coliform counts, faecal coliform counts, Vibrio counts, Salmonella-Shigella counts and Pseudomonas counts for the mono-pump samples ranged from: 1.1×103- 1.8×103, 2.0×102– 9.1×102, 2.4×102- 3.8×102, 4.5×102-8.6×102, 1.4×102 - 4.2×102 and 0.0×100Cfu/ml, respectively. The bacterial genera identified were: Bacillus, Lynsinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Shigella, Salmonella, Paenibacillus, Aeromonas and Geobacillus. The means of physicochemical parameters for borehole and mono-pump, respectively were: alkalinity: 41.72±0.01-60.85±0.20 and 29.14±0.01-214.87±1.36mg/l; BOD: 8.26±0.01-10.44±0.0 and 5.12±0.01-5.79±0.01; COD: 126.52±0.01-172.41±0.04 and 83.20±0.44-218.00±0.57; DO: 6.31±0.01 and 3.05±0.07-8.29±0.01; calcium: 5.10±0.28-; 4.83±0.00-10.15±0.00 and 2.71±0.00-14.04±0.00; iron: 2.01±0.00-3.37±0.00 and 1.90±0.00-4.73±0.00; lead: 0.38±0.00-1.07±0.00 and 1.24±0.00-1.63±0.00; nitrate: 0.42±0.00-1.08±0.00 and 1.14±0.00-1.75±0.00; zinc:1.10±0.00-3.18±0.00 and 0.39±0.00-1.82±0.00; phosphate: 0.03±0.00-0.13±0.00 and 0.15±0.00-0.87±0.00; pH: 6.54±0.00-7.05±0.07 and 6.29±0.00-6.93±0.01; salinity: 4.02±0.00-5.14±0.00 and 2.83±0.00-5.88±0.00; total organic carbon: 1.39±0.01-2.81±0.010 and 1.64±0.00-3.42±0.01; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon: 32.69±0.00-55.73±0.00 and 45.10±0.00-61.49±0.00mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbon:58.90±0.00-66.15±0.00 and 60.31±0.00-92.11±0.00 mg/l.

Conclusion: The high counts of bacterial groups of public health importance identified from this study, including the presence of: COD, DO, Fe, Pb, Phosphate, Zinc, TPH and PAH in high concentrations reveals contamination of the water sources. Thus, treatment before drinking is recommended.