Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteroides and Prevotella to β-Lactams, Lincosamide and Nitroimidazole: A 20 Year Survey in Lagos, Nigeria

Louis O. Egwari, Nkiru N. Nwokoye, Funmilola A. Babalola, Adetunji M. Kilani, William W. Effiok, Olushoga O. Olubi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130218

The propensity to develop resistance to antibiotics has accounted for the predominance of Bacteroides and Prevotella in infections due to anaerobic bacteria. The observed differences in resistance pattern across geographical boundaries underscored the timeliness for this study to review data on antibiotic susceptibility and resistance markers amongst Bacteroides and Prevotella to β-lactams, lincosamide and nitroimidazole from selected hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria from 1992-2011. Bacteroides, mostly B. fragilis were the sole anaerobic gram negative bacilli in peritonitis following lower abdominal surgery and bloodstream infections, while Prevotella bivia and P. melaninogenica were more frequent in periodontal abscess, pelvic inflammatory disease and chronic suppurative otitis media. The MIC range and MIC90 of the anaerobes for the antibiotics does not indicate changes in group resistance to antibiotics though isolated cases were recorded. While clear cut patterns were not established for other species, B. fragilis resistance increased for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid from 18.2% in 1992-1996 to 31.4% in 2006-2011 and from 27.3% in 1992-1996 to 34.3% in 2006-2011 for cefoxitin. In contrast, decrease susceptibility was obtained against clindamycin (54.5% in 1992-1996 to 22.9% in 2006-2011). Similarly, 22.7% of B. fragilis strains have the cepA and/or cfxA gene in 1992-1996 compared to 32.1% in 2006-2011. While not all isolates with cepA and/or cfxA genes were resistant to the β-lactams, all isolates carrying the ermF or nim genes were resistant to the lincosamide (clindamycin) or nitroimidazole (metronidazole) respectively. The presence of antibiotics resistance genes can be used in tracking resistance amongst species of Bacteroides and Prevotella. With emerging new technologies, gene screening may prove more effective and reliable for therapeutic decisions for anaerobic bacterial infections especially since the genes can be screened from the infective exudates. This will eliminate the need for culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing for this group of fastidious microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Hookworm (Necator Americanus) and Other Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Primary School Children in Sokoto Metropolis

K. Mohammed, E. Emeagubor, M. U. Iduh, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala, O. F. Ashcroft

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130219

Background: Hookworm is an intestinal parasite of human and is one of the major public health burdens in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that about 3.5 billion people globally and 450 million people are thought to be ill as a result of such infections, the majority being children.

Aims: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection among primary school children

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in among patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Sokoto state, between March to November, 2017.

Methodology: A total of 224 participants were enrolled for the study. Standard parasitological  examination  was carried  out  on  stool  samples  using microscopy followed by formal  ether  concentration  methods

Results: Finding revealed, an overall prevalence of 4.5% out of 224 samples examined recorded for both Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection. There was high prevalence rate of Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection among males (5.3%) than females (3.6%).29 (12%) were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Males  recorded  higher  prevalence  than  the  females  with 19 (11.9%)  and  10 (11.8%)  respectively

Conclusion: The total low prevalence rate of Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection may be as a result of improved standard of living and awareness of the Hookworm and other intestinal parasites in the study area. The government, non-governmental agencies and private individuals should help in the provision of social amenities to ensure total eradication of these diseases. The teaching of health education in both private schools should be encouraged by the government which will go a long way in  reducing  prevalence and  intensity  of  Hookworm  infections  among  the  study community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Nutrient Quality of Biofertilizer Produced from Organic Waste Using Lysinibacillus Macroides and Alcaligens Faecalis

V. Amadi, S. A. Wemedo, L. O. Amadi

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130220

Biofertilizers are ecofriendly fertilizers that are produced via degradation of wastes by microorganisms. The efficiency of Lynsibacillus macroides and Alcaligens faecalis in the production of fertilizer from organic wastes was evaluated. The bacterial isolates were isolated from soil samples collected from fallow patch of land in the Rivers State University farm using standard microbiological methods. The test bacteria were identified by conventional and molecular techniques. Organic wastes including cassava peels, elephant grass and poultry droppings used in this study were collected from the Rivers State University Farm. Three experimental treatments were used in this study; treatment 1 contains 300g of the composite substrate without any organisms and served as control, treatment 2 contains 300g of the composite substrate and 200ml of Lynsibacillus macroides while treatment 3 contains 300g of the composite substrate and 200ml of Alcaligenes faecalis. The treatments were allowed to degrade for 10 days. The pH, temperature, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total organic carbon were determined using standard analytical method. Means of physicochemical parameters in treatment 1, 2 and 3, respectively were: pH 8.3±0.7, 8.6±0.4 and 9.0±0.3; Nitrogen: 2.63±0.08, 1.97±0.03 and 1.51±0.01; phosphorus: 4.71±0.01, 4.43±0.01 and 3.52±0.02; potassium: 604.10±2.12, 591.00±1.41421 and 504.20±2.83; total organic carbon: 31.75±0.78, 23.04±0.04 and 17.56±0.01 mg/kg. The treatment which was supplemented with Lysinbacillus macroides produced more nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total organic carbon than treatment which was supplemented with A. faecalis. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P≤ 0.05) between the quantity of nitrogen produced by L. macroides and A. faecalis. Although the amount of nitrogen produced by both organisms were significantly different from the control. More so, statistical analysis showed that the quantity of phosphorus, potassium and total organic carbon produced by L. macroides was significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than those produced by A. faecalis and the control. Thus, Lynsibacillus macroides is a better biofertilizer producer than A. faecalis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing Methods on the Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of Palm Oil Produced in Ondo State, Nigeria

Ariyo Olanrewaju Dokun, Ojokoh Anthony, Akinyosoye Felix Akinsola

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 33-50
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130221

This study was aimed at assessing the physicochemical and microbiological quality of Palm oil produced in Ondo State, Nigeria. Three palm oil extraction methods were used for the study. The oil samples were stored for six months, while the microbiological and physicochemical quality assessment were investigated monthly. Results show that the Free Fatty Acids (FFA), Acid Value, Peroxide Value, Iodine Value and Microbial counts of all the oil samples examined varied from one extraction method to the other over the storage period. The samples obtained through the traditional extraction methods had the least quality over the storage period. The total bacteria counts ranged from 0.66 – 3.45 x 104 cfu/ml for the mechanized, 1.25 – 4.50 x 104 cfu/ml for the semi-mechanized and 1.20 – 6.50 x 104 cfu/ml for the traditional method while the fungi count ranged from 0.30 - 5.33 x 104 sfu/ml for mechanized, 1.22 – 7.56 x 104 sfu/ml for the semi-mechanized and 2.30 – 8.56 x 104 sfu/ml for the traditional method. A range of microbes including some pathogenic, were isolated from Palm oil samples. Aspergillus flavus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus saprophyticus, Varicosporum elodeae, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant species. However, Bacillus subtilis, Trichodema viridae and Bacillus cereus are the least isolated microorganisms. The oil extracted through the mechanized method had the lowest Free Fatty Acid (5.60 – 9.77%), Acid Value (11.20 – 20.18 MgKOH/g), Iodine Value (40.00 - 55.43 Wijs), and Peroxide Value (3.02 – 10.33 Meq/Kg) before and after storage than those extracted by the other methods. The sensory evaluation also showed preference for the palm oil extracted using the mechanized process compared to the other methods, as it retained its qualities significantly over the storage period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria among Patients Attending Primary Health Care Clinic Garaku, Nasarawa State, North Central Region of Nigeria

J. C. Ndubuisi, Mohammed, Aisha, Rizwan A. Ansari, Uche Ifeoma Ude

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 51-55
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130222

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite infection (MPI) among patients attending Primary Health Care clinic (PHC) at Garaku, Kokona Local Government Area of Nasarawa State North Central Nigeria. A formal consent was issued by the Nasarawa State Hospital management Board to conduct the study. A studypopulation size of150 consenting, apparently healthy, males and females who had attended the Primary Health Care clinic situated at Garaku, Kokona Local, Government of Nasarawa State, for medical treatment, were recruited for the study. The study took place between the month of May 2019 and September 2019. The socio-demographic features of each participant were verbally obtained, and included sex, age, occupational and educational statuses. The gold standard tool (microscopy) was relied upon to determine the prevalence of malaria infection among the subjects. Blood samples collected from patients were Giemsa stained and microscopically examined for malaria parasites. Analysis of the samples revealed malaria prevalence of 53.3 %among the sampled population. Further analysis onmalaria prevalence with respect to factors such as age, educational and occupational status revealed that malaria infection was more prevalent among the civil servants (75%), followed by the elderly (71.4%), and followed by the educated (73.3%) in the population. In conclusion, the study established that women, civil servants, the elderly, and the least educated were more vulnerable to malaria infection within the study location