Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Contaminants of New Unused Disposable Food Packs Used in Commercial Area of Gombe State University

A. T. Umar, A. Haruna, H. U. Puma, M. Bashir, I. Halima, U. A. Kawuwa, I. Ya’u

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330228

Aim: Consumable items frequently get contaminated with bacteria harbored by their packaging materials. These bacteria result in food-borne diseases when consumed along with the food by susceptible individuals, leading to illnesses and possibly death of these individuals.

Study Design: The study was designed to determine the presence of bacterial contaminants in new unused disposable food packs used in commercial area of Gombe State University.

Place and duration of study: This study was carried out in the department of microbiology, Gombe state university between March, 2018 and June, 2018.

Methodology: 30 disposable food packs were collected using simple random sampling method. Sterile swab sticks were used to swab the interior portion of the packs inside a disinfected glass cupboard, the swabs were serially diluted to tenth fold. Spread plate method was used to inoculate the samples on a nutrient agar plates and incubated at 36oC for 24hours. Viable count method was used to enumerate the number of colonies formed, and the bacteria were identified based on their macroscopic characteristics, Gram’s reaction, microscopy, and standard biochemical tests. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the sensitivity of these isolates to some antibiotics.

Results: Out of the 30 samples, 23 samples were positive for bacterial growths with discrete CFU/ml ranging from 3.0×105 to 5.9×105, these bacteria were identified to be Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The sensitivity test results revealed that all the isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, augmentin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin, with the exception of S. aureus which was found to be resistant to ampicillin.

Conclusion: These disposable food packs have been shown to contain notable amounts of these bacteria, and so proper sanitation, such as rinsing in boiled water should be ensured before using the food packs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence Rate among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients of Tertiary Health Facility

A. P. Unamadu, C. O. Anyamene, C. U. Ezebialu, I. A. Nwafor, O. C. Edward

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330229

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic virus which is one of the major causes of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The virus, estimated to infect about 3% of the world population, is primarily transmitted through the parenteral route which includes injection drug use, blood transfusion, unsafe injection practices, and other healthcare related procedures. HCV causes acute hepatitis which is mostly subclinical, but which gradually evolves into chronic hepatitis in about 80% of those infected. HCV infected people are at risk for developing chronic liver disease (CLD), cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been estimated that HCV accounts for 27% of cirrhosis and 25% of HCC worldwide. This work evaluated the prevalence rate of hepatitis C virus among patients of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka in Anambra state Nigeria. For the purpose of this study, two hundred (200) venous blood samples were drawn from patients (80 males and 120 females) in the ART and GOPD phlebotomy units and screened with in vitro anti HCV strip for qualitative diagnosis. 100 out the 200 samples were HIV positive samples whereas 100 remaining samples weren’t. At the end, results showed 11 positive samples out of the 200 patients screened. That is, 5.5% of the study population were infected with hepatitis C virus. 5 out of the 11 positive samples (2.5%) were HIV positive while 6(3%) of the total positive were not. Of the 6 age groups (200 samples) tested for HCV, age groups (25-34) and (45-54) had the highest number of infection i.e. 3 (4.9%) and 3(11.1%) respectively. Age groups 15-24 and 55-64 had 2(5.4%) and 2(11.1%) each. While in (35-44) age group, only 1(2.3%) person was infected and none was infected in those 65 years and above. Then, while 7 (63.6%) of the HCV positive population were male, 4 (36.4%) were female. Of the 11 persons infected with hepatitis C, 72% had multiple sex partners,45% had HIV,18% had tattoos, and 9% had been transfused in the past. Howbeit, HCV has no preventive vaccines; hence the call for greater awareness, public education and encouragement of early diagnosis to curb the prevalence rate of HCV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment and Health Risks of Consumption of Uncooked Smoked Horse Mackerel Fish (Trachurus trachurus) Sold in Open Markets in Owerri Metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria

N. U. Nwogwugwu, E. C. Chinakwe, C. E. Ihejirika, E. C. Ezenweani, C. C. Ngumah, E. E. Mike- Anosike

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330230

Aim: To assess the microbiological quality of uncooked smoked horse mackerel fish (Trachurus trachurus) sold in Owerri and ascertain the presence and prevalence of microorganisms of public health importance.

Study Design: Random sampling was done.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri; from October, 2019 to April, 2020.

Methodology: Smoked fish samples (n=20) were purchased randomly from retailers in Relief, Naze, Eziobodo and Obinze markets and taken to the laboratory for isolation and identification of microorganisms. Standard microbiological methods were employed to analyze for viable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts on nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar respectively, using the spread and streak plate techniques. Coliform counts were done on MacConkey agar. Biochemical characterization of the microorganisms was adopted for their identification.

Results: Bacteria identified included Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Salmonella and Micrococcus species. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts and coliform counts ranged from 2.8 x 106 cfu/g to 1.6 x 108 cfu/g and 2.7 x 104 cfu/g to 5.3 x 105 cfu/g respectively. Fungal species identified were Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus and Fusarium spp and fungal counts as high as 4.5 x 105 cfu/g were recorded.

Conclusion: The high level of microbial contamination of the samples and the presence of organisms of public health importance signifies an obvious danger to human health. Eating smoked fish without proper cooking should be discouraged by the relevant authorities. Also, food safety authorities should intensify their monitoring efforts towards controlling such contaminations and averting possible outbreaks of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Current Trends of Gram-negative Bacteremia in a State of North India, the Forthcoming Challenges IGMC Shimla

Pankaj Katoch, Anil Kanga

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330231

Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the evolution of sepsis there is an increase in vascular permeability leading to coagulation abnormalities and subsequent dysfunction of major organs.1 Bloodstream infections are a cause of life-threatening complications in all age groups of the population especially the extreme age groups who are very much prone to the risk. Antibiotic usage is associated with bacteremia, septicemia, and mortality through many factors. We are aware that Gram-negative bacteria due to many causes are becoming increasingly resistant to the currently used antimicrobial therapy. Here, in this study, we report the incidence and etiology and of the Gram-Negative bacterial isolates and their clinical significance from our tertiary care institute located in the Northern part of India.

Materials and Methods: Prospective Observational Study conducted in the Department of Microbiology IGMC Shimla for a tenure of one year to determine the incidence and etiology of Gram-negative bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial resistance profile. All the blood culture samples received in the Department of Microbiology IGMC Shimla for culture by Bactec Bd fx from July 2015 to June 2016 were included in the study except for falling in the exclusion criteria. The blood culture was observed in the Bactec bd fx system for at least 5 days before they are reported as sterile.

Results: Among the total 1275 cultures which were positive for bacteria, 931(73.02%) were positive for Gram-negative bacteria. Among the total of 931culture that were positive for Gram-negative bacteria, The Non-fermenter group of organisms was isolated in 292(31.36%) cultures, followed by E. coli 266(28.57%). Among the total of 931 cultures positive for GNB, a maximum of 335 (35.98%) belonged to 0-1 year. Among them, 574 (61.65%) were males while 357 (38.35%) were females.

Conclusion: Nonfermenter group was the commonest organism among Gram-negative isolates. Infants were more commonly positive as compared to another age group. Males were more commonly culture positive as compared to females among gram-negative isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Evaluation of Non-Regulated Herbal Remedies Sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

C. L. C. Ndukwu, N. P. Akani, S. A. Wemedo, T. Sampson

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330232

An essential mandate of food and drug regulatory agencies is to ensure that products offered for public consumption are free from such level of microbial contamination as to endanger the health of consumers. A number of herbal remedies offered to the public were found not to be regulated as evidenced by the absence of regulation numbers on the labels. Thus, this study sought to determine the level of bacterial contamination of packaged, labeled, non-regulated herbal remedies sold in Port Harcourt.  Seventy two samples of twelve different locally produced, liquid, packaged, labeled, orally administered, non-regulated herbal remedies were purchased randomly from retail outlets within Port Harcourt metropolis. They were assessed for total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC) and total coliform counts (TCC). One hundred and sixty four bacterial strains obtained were characterized and identified by standard techniques employing Gram staining and biochemical methods. The mean THBC was 3.77±0.77 Log10cfu/ml ranging from 3.20±0.99 to 4.37±0.91Log10cfu/ml. The mean TCC was 3.17±1.02 Log10cfu/ml; with the range between 2.32±1.81 and 3.98±0.47 Log10cfu/ml. All 164 bacterial isolates belong to eleven genera, and 22 species namely Staphylococcus aureus (59;36.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (13; 7.9%), Enterobacter pyrinus (10; 6.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10; 6.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10; 6.1%), Bacillus subtilis, (8; 4.9%) Enterobacter aerogenes (7;4.3%), Serratia rubidaea (7;4.3%), Proteus (Cosenza) myxofaciens (6;3.7%), Staphylococcus epidimidis (6;3.7%) Serratia marcescens  (4;2.4%) Bacillus cereus (3;1.8%), Citrobacter rodentium (3;1.8%), Enterobacter hormaechei, (3;1.8%) Klebsiella oxytoca, (3;1.8%)  Proteus mirabilis (3;1.8%). Hafnia alvei (2;1.2%), Salmonella pullorum (2;1.2%), Streptococcus pyogenes (2;1.2%) Enterobacter cancerogenus (1; 0.6%) Salmonella enterica (1; 0.6%), Salmonella typhi (1; 0.6%). Given that these products were processed, packaged, labeled and offered for sale to the public without regulatory numbers, it is suggested that regulatory agencies should ensure that all such products are brought within the ambits of the regulatory laws.