Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Assessment of the Indoor Air of a Private University in Nigeria

J. C. Ozougwu, I. Nwachukwu, C. A. Imakwu, A. E. Nwafia, C. U. Uzochukwu, C. P. Ihevueme

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 11-17
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430234

The bacteriological assessment of indoor air of the male hostel at Rhema University Nigeria was undertaken in this study. Bacteriological analyses of Air samples from male hostels was carried out weekly for 4 weeks using standard microbiological methods in June, 2021 to determine their bacteriological content. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables. The result showed that the concentration of bacteria isolates increased as the duration of exposure of the media increased. The highest bacteria concentration was seen at room 205 at 40 minutes (29.8 x 102CFU/M3) and the least at room 204 at 20 minutes (0.9 x 101 CFU/M3). The concentration of bacteria at other rooms were room 305 at 40 minutes (17.7 x 102 CFU/M3), room 304 at 20 minutes had 1.3 x 101 CFU/M3, room 405 at 40 minutes had 17.8 x 102 CFU/M3, room 404 at 20 minutes had 3.6 x 101 CFU/M3, room 504 at 40 minutes had 17.6 x 102 CFU/M3 and room 503 at 20 minutes had 11.9 x 102 CFU/M3. A total of eleven (11) different bacteria species were isolated and identified as Staphylococcus aureus (100%), Escherichia coli (75%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (75%), Klebsiella spp (75%), Bacillus subtilis (75%), Streptococcus pyogenes (50%), Bacillus megaterium (50%), Bacillus cereus (50%) and Serratia marcescens (25%). Staphylococcus aureus is the most occurring bacteria specie (100%) while Serratia marcescens is the least occurring bacteria specie (25%). Potential pathogenicity testing of isolates revealed Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes as potential pathogenic species found in the hostel rooms. Bearing in mind that some of the bacteria species isolated showed potential pathogenic abilities, it means that the air quality of the male hostel rooms may have health implications. There is therefore need for periodic air quality evaluation in the male hostel to discover and manage those environmental variables which favours the multiplication of bacteria. Students are advised to implement good sanitation and hygiene practices to improve indoor air quality in the hostels and prevent possible infection or disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria and Fungi from Cassavamill Effluent in Afikpo, Ebonyi State Nigeria

N. E. Nwakoby, J. I. Ezeogo, M. U. Orji, C. F. Ejimofor

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 18-28
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430235

Wastes from cassava processing mills are usually discharged uncontrollably into the environment where they cause serious environmental challenges. This research work was undertaken to investigate the effects of cassava mill effluent on the microbiological quality of soils and to determine the effects of the polluted soils on the growth of plants. Fresh cassava mill effluent and unpolluted soil samples were collected and analyzed microbiologically. The soil sample was polluted with the cassava mill effluent and the polluted soil was also subjected to microbiological analyses for 31days. Germination and growth of pumpkin plants were also investigated using soil samples polluted with different concentrations of the cassava mill effluent. The microbial population of the effluent showed presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp, and Candida spp. The bacterial count was 1.4x104cfu/ml while the fungal count was 1.1x103cfu/ml. The results of the analyses of the unpolluted soil and the effluent polluted soil samples showed that the effluent had noticeable effects on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the soil. The total microbial count increased from 2.2x105 cfu/g to 4.6x105cfu/g for bacteria and 1.6x104cfu/g to 3.3x105cfu/g for fungi. The polluted soil showed higher diversity of micro-organisms. The isolated organisms were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus spp, Proteus spp, Enterobacter spp, Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, and Rhizopus spp. The polluted soil also, at higher concentrations of the effluent  inhibited the germination of plants. This research revealed that effluents from cassava processing mills have significant effects on the microbiological properties of the surrounding soils and also affected the growth of plants on these soils negatively. It therefore suggested that this effluent should be treated properly before disposal to the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aerating Duration on Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in a Simulated Crude-Oil Polluted Aquatic Environment Undergoing Bioremediation

Ewoh, Prosperity C., Peekate, Lekiah P.

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 29-39
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430236

The aim of this research work was to determine the aerating duration that would be effective in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation rate during bioremediation of crude-oil polluted river. Sediment and river-water were placed in four glass troughs labeled CT (control), A, B, and C. The setups were polluted with crude-oil, and allowed undisturbed for 2 weeks. Subsequently, accessible crude-oil on the surface was removed; bacteria and nutrients were then added. Air was bubbled for 3 hours into setups A, B, and C, at daily, 3 days, and 7 days interval respectively. Aeration was not applied to setup CT. On day 1, 7, 14, and 21, hydrocarbon concentration was determined; populations of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (HUB) were also determined. The time it will take for hydrocarbons in the setups to biodegraded “completely” was calculated using first-order reaction equation. The results obtained showed that 71.43, 86.39, 83.17, and 15.42 % hydrocarbon degradation were obtained in setup A, B, C, and CT respectively. The time it will take for hydrocarbons in the setups to biodegrade “completely” were 129, 89, 101, and 1079 days for A, B, C, and CT respectively. There was slight reduction in population of HUB in setup CT, fairly stable population in setup A, and increase in population of HUB in setups B and C. It is concluded that aerating crude-oil polluted aquatic environment for 3 hours at 3 days interval will be more effective in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation rate during bioremediation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Assessment of Elechi Creek Receiving Wastewater Effluents from Industrial Operations in Port Harcourt City

D. N. Ogbonna, P. C. Meregini-Ikechukwu, L. B. Kpormon

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430237

Disposal of wastewater and other effluents into water bodies from activities around water bodies have for long been of major concern and challenge to the environment leading to several infectious diseases. The amount of industrial untreated solid wastes from companies, wastewater from car washing activities, open drainages and agricultural runoffs located close to Elechi creek constitutes the wastewater effluents received by the creek thus resulting in the imbalance of the ecosystem. The study was therefore aimed at determining the microbiology of water quality at different stations of the Elechi creek. Surface water, wastewater and sediment samples were collected during a seven month period and analysed using standard microbiological procedures. Results obtained revealed that the average microbial counts ranged as follows: Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.12±0.13x108 to 1.28±0.09x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 6.4±0.21 to 7.8±0.13 cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.9±0.06 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 7.9±0.11 to 8.5±0.14 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 5.4±0.13 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 5.9±0.13 to 7.4±0.09 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 2.5±0.08 to 4.8 ±0.10 cfu/ml, in surface water, Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.02±0.08 x108 cfu/ml to 2.68±0.08 x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 4.4±0.10a to 4.9±0.11a cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count;4.7±0.10 to 5.9±0.12 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.08 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 3.2±0.16 to 4.6±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 2.0±0.15 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count2.7±0.13 to 3.9±0.09cfu/ml, in wastewater and Total Heterotrophic bacteria 2.16±0.07 x109 cfu/g to 2.24±0.09 x109 cfu/g, Total coliform count; 1.01±0.13 to 1.36±0.06b cfu/g, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.8±0.11 to 9.1±0.08 cfu/g, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.09 to 6.5±0.06 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 4.1±0.11 to 9.7±0.12 cfu/g, Total Vibrio Count; 6.8±0.10 to 9.5±0.09 cfu/g, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 4.0±0.16 to 5.9±0.07 cfu/g, in sediment samples. Bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Providencia, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Enterobacter were isolated and identified. The occurrences of these bacterial isolates as potential pathogens could cause poor water quality through fouling and render the water for various uses and may pose a public health threat to our water resources. Adherence to good hygienic practices and proper treatment of wastewater before discharge into the environment should be encouraged to minimize the spread of infectious diseases and fouling of water bodies. This may also affect the aquatic life in such ecosystems.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Commercial and Therapeutic Implementation of Lactobacillus Species

Pratik Chatterjee, Utpalendu Paul, Subhadeep Banerjee

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430233

Lactic acid (LA) is one of the primary metabolites that is considered to be a natural product derived from microorganisms such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). The most prominent LA- producing LAB is the genus of Lactobacillus spp. and is found in almost all dairy products along with non-dairy food products. The application of LA can be found in various sectors including food, fermentation, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries. LAB have lots of perspective in the production of organic acids as well as complex compounds that find potential application in food products such as yoghurt, cheese, buttermilk in addition to therapeutics uses such as probiotics that help in preventing gastrointestinal infections; improve pathogen protection; and alter host immunological responses. Moreover, fermentation with LAB also facilitates efficient nutrient quality and provides an effective method of food preservation. The present study provides an overview of the potential application of LA produced by Lactobacillus spp. in different sectors.