Open Access Original Research Article

Mycoflora of Crude Oil Polluted Soils of Ukwa West of Abia State Nigeria

J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130240

Aim: Bioremediation of soil play a critical role in removing pollutants from crude oil polluted soil. To investigate the mycoflora of crude oil polluted area of Ukwa West Local Government in the present Abia State.

Methodology: Portions of the soil samples collected from three (3) locations were plated out separately on Yeast Starch Agar, Starch Agar, and Cellulose Agar using soil plate methods. The culture plates were examined after 5-7 and 14 days for the presence of fungi. Pure cultures of the isolates were obtained by subculturing and the physico-chemical properties of the soil samples were determined using standard methods.

Results: Twenty species (20) of fungi were isolated from the crude oil polluted soil sample and represented by their respective genera. Eight (8) species of Aspergillus representing 40%, two (2) species of Thermomyces representing 10% each, and one (1) species of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Curvularia, Trichoderma, Scopulariopsis, Sporotrichum and Basipetospora representing 5% each. Aspergillus species were predominant which include among others A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, A. terreus. The physico-chemical properties of the soil sample were found to be varied and have affected the distribution and population of fungi. The pH values ranged from 4.81- 5.58 as compared to the control ranging from 5.72- 6.50 for soil samples A, B and C. The moisture content values ranged between 26.46-29.59% as compared to the control ranging from 29.41-32.51%. The soil was found to be high in organic matter content with values of 70.3-82.7% as compared to the control which was 94% for each of the locations.

Conclusion: Crude oil polluted soils of Ukwa West of Abia State, Nigeria is rich in fungal biodiversity with the soil’s samples having different physico-chemical properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Microbes Associated With Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Keypads Studied at Rumuokoro Port Harcourt, Rivers State

B. C. Anele, I. M. Ikeh, H. O. Stanley

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130241

The keypads of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are subjected to several microbial contaminations due to their large dermal contact by numerous users and different personal hygiene practice. The study investigated the bacterial diversity and level of contamination obtainable on the ATM keypads during transactions and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The population of culturable bacterial isolates was determined by plating. Isolates were characterized culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method. The total culturable heterotrophic bacterial counts ranssged from 5.23 to 9.25 log cfu/g. The bacterial identified and frequency of occurrence is Staphylococcus aureus (17.5%), Escherichia coli (22.5%), Bacillus spp (17.5%), Salmonella spp (10.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.0%), Proteus spp (7.5%) and Klebsiella spp (15.0%) respectively. Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to Chloramphenicol (37mm) and were more resistant to Rifampicin (00mm) and Levofloxacin (00mm) respectively. The Gram negative isolates in the study were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin and more resistant to ceporex, nalidixic acid, septrin and ampicillin respectively.  The highest gram negative isolates that showed more susceptible to all the used gram negative antibiotics were Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp while the lowest were Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp respectively. The study has revealed that bacterial contamination on ATM keypads is of health significance and could result to public health challenges if not properly managed. Therefore, adequate hand- washing hygienic practices and cleaning agents are advocated towards reducing the related ill- health among ATM users.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Bacteriological Profile of Pleural Fluid and Antibiogram of Isolates at Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Medical College Andhospital College, Rajkot

Dolly Solanki, Krupali Kothari

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 18-31
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130242

Background: The bacteriology of thoracic empyema has been changing since the introduction of antibiotics. Gram stain and culture has for decades been the “gold standard” for the detection of microorganisms in pleural fluid samples. The present retrospective study was designed to review our experience with the microbial causes of empyema and their antibiotic sensitive patterns. The knowledge of likely prevalent strains along with their antimicrobial sensitive pattern helps in the framing of antibiotic policy and better management of patients.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was including 500 cases suspected of bacteriological infection of pleural fluid in patients admitted in ward of PDU Government Hospital, Rajkot. The performa include serial number, register number, age, sex, ward, clinical features of patients and investigation. All the samples were inoculated into Blood agar and MacConkey agar and Nutrient agar. All the plates were incubated aerobically at 370 C and results were read after 24 hours. If no growth present it is further incubated for next 24 hours. One smear was prepared on clean glass slide, then air dried and was heat fixed. Gram staining was done by standard technique.

Results: This study include 500 cases of pleural effusion from January 2015 to July 2016, out of which 87 cases show positive Bacterial culture growth and 232 cases were adenosine deaminase positive. In total 87 positive bacterial cultures, 20(22%) show bacterial pathogens in gram stain. Total positive culture found in 17.4%. Among them; most common Bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 40 (45%)  patients, this was followed by Klebsiella pneumonaie in 21 (24%), Staphylococcus aureus in 10 (11.49%), Acinetobacter spp. in 4 (4.59%), Proteus spp.in 3 (3.44%) and Providencia in 1 (1.14%).

Conclusion: Pleural space infection continues to be prevalent in our country particularly in the lower socioeconomic strata due to the delay in seeking medical care, inappropriate antibiotics and dosages and duration of antibiotic treatment. All gram positive bacteria isolate were 100% sensitivity to Rifampicin, Vancomycin, Linezolid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Abattoir Wastewaters in Bayelsa and Rivers State

Ariyo, Adenike Bosede, Obire, Omokaro

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 32-45
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130243

Wastewater samples from abattoirs in Bayelsa and Rivers State were evaluated for their microbiological and physicochemical properties. The microbiological parameters were analyzed using standard microbiological techniques while the Physicochemical parameters were analyzed based on the APHA standard method. The mean range of the total heterotrophic bacterial, bacterial, total coliform, total Vibrio, total hydrocarbon utilizing, total heterotrophic fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts of the wastewater were: (1.9×107to 5.2×107, 2.1×105 to 4.0 × 105, 1.0×103 to 3.1 × 103, 1.0×105 to 2.2×105, 1.8×105 to c4.1×105 and 1.1×103 to 3.2 ×103)CFU/ml respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the counts for the bacterial and fungal counts. Bacillus sp (17.32%), Escherichia coli (16.33%), Streptococcus sp (15.34%), Staphylococcus sp (14.35%), Pseudomonas sp (11.38%), Shigella sp (10.39%) Alcaligenes sp (9.9%), Vibrio sp (6.93%) and Salmonella sp (4.93%), were the bacteria isolated. The percentage of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolates were: Bacillus sp (34.28%), Pseudomonas sp (26.71%), Alcaligenes sp (20%). Escherichia coli (14.28%), Staphylococcus sp (5.71%). Among the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Geotrichum sp were found in 18.75% each while Penicillium sp recorded 23% occurrence, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida sp were found in 6.25% occurrence each but Mucor sp exhibited 8.33% of occurrence. The percentages of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi were Aspergillus sp (22.22%), Fusarium sp (16.66%), Penicillium sp (33.33%), Geotrichum sp (16.66%), Mucor sp (5.55%) and Candida (5.55%). The mean of physicochemical parameters was: pH: 6.7-9.1, EC: 156-4981, Turbidity: 11.1-149NTU, TSS: 62-239, TDS: 104-3320, NO3: 20.97-30.97, SO4: 14.5-54.6, PO4: 1.78-20.21, salinity: 41.25-2800, DO: 4.29-41.18, COD:3600-5476.0 and BOD-:1600.0-7761.4. The high microbial load and physicochemical parameters in these wastewaters is alarming and could pose serious human health and environmental challenges if the disposal of untreated wastewater continues unabated.

Open Access Review Article

The Emergence of New Rotavirus Strains in America

Lurys Bourdett-Stanziola, Edwing Centeno, Manuel Cuevas-Abrego, Armando A. Durant-Archibold, Eduardo Ortega-Barría, Filemón Bucardo

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 46-62
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130244

Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in young children and animal worldwide. In some countries in Latin American specifically in Central American and Caribbean countries, rotavirus infections are not subject to specific surveillance. This review is about the unusually strains detected and potential zoonotic of rotavirus in Latin American. Although, interspecies transmission has not been documented to occur directly, an increase of the number of reports of atypical rotavirus genotypes; apparently derived from transmission between animal of farm, domestic and wild with humans, has been reported in some Latin American countries and the world. We consider that the rapid increase in the detection of new unusual strains with genetic heterogeneity, raises interesting questions about the evolution of rotavirus in The Latin American region. The emergence of novel strains derived from interspecies transmission has implications for the design and implementation of successful human rotavirus vaccine strategies.