Open Access Original Research Article

Manufacture of Bio-ethanol from Waste Material (Cassava Peels) Utilizing Some Microbes

O. O. Oladipo, T. M. Ilesanmi, A. A. Odeleye

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430279

Introduction: There has been various report of the potential of manufacturing of bioethanol from the use of different microbial inoculants for the fermentation of different feedstocks has been previously described and carried out by various researchers. And bioethanol is considered as cheap and efficient biofuel, and environmentally friendly

Aims: The aim of this study is to manufacture bio-ethanol from waste material; such as cassava peel, which would serve as an alternate source of fuel.

Methodology: Cassava peels obtained from garri processing plant in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, were washed, sun-dried, grounded into powdery form and then sieved with 1.5 μ nylon sieve. The powdery cassava peels obtained was cultured using the following inoculant combinations: A = 20 g + Bacillus; B = 20 g + Pseudomonas; C = 20 g + Bacillus + Pseudomonas; D = 40 g + Bacillus; E = 40 g + Pseudomonas; F = 40 g + Bacillus + Pseudomonas; G = 20 g + Aspergillus niger; H = 20 g + Fusarium; I = 40 g + Aspergillus niger; J = 40 g + Fusarium. The control was free of inoculated organism. The cultures were subjected to distillation process for on the 21st day; and the quantity of bio-ethanol manufactured in each group was recorded.

Results: The waste material (cassava peels) produced the highest bio-ethanol yield of 147 mL with A. niger, followed by the combination of Bacillus + Pseudomonas which yielded 108 mL of bio-ethanol. Low ethanol yields of 45, 83 and 94 ml/L were obtained from the cassava peels of in combination with Fusarium, Pseudomonas and Bacillus alone.

Conclusion: Microbes of choice in this study displayed great potential for manufacturing of bio-ethanol from cassava peels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conducting Hormonal, Biochemical and Serological Tests in Autoimmune Thyroid Patients

Afraa Abdul-Sattar Albadrani, Mahmood Abduljabbar Altobje

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430281

Background: One of the most frequent autoimmune illnesses affecting the thyroid gland is immunological thyroid disease. Antibodies against the enzyme thyroglobulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors are produced by the immune system. Hashimoto's disease and Graves' disease are the two primary forms of autoimmune diseases.

Methods: 91 blood samples were taken, including 71 for thyroid disease patients and 20 for healthy persons as control samples, from both sexes and of various ages. The tests were performed using a variety of methodologies.

Results: Some of autoantibodies were found in varying quantities in 44 individuals. While TPO antibodies were found in 75% of 33 individuals, Anti-TG Ab was found in 72.72% of the patients, 15.90% in seven patients, and anti-TSHR Ab and antinuclear antibodies were found in 22.72% of the patients compared to the control samples. Any type of autoantibody, as well as the results of hormonal testing, revealed disease in a variety of individuals at varying rates. Because the patients were on therapy, the highest rate was 59.09% for thyroid-stimulating hormones. Chemical analyses revealed a sugar and fat imbalance with no discernible link. Interleukin 4 was detected in 4 individuals (9.09%), including one patient with autoimmune hypothyroidism (2.27%) and three patients in C3 18 with immunological hyperthyroidism (6.82%). The findings revealed an increase in complement molecule concentration in 40.90% of patients, including 15 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (34.09%) and 3 patients with immune thyroid gland C3 hyperactivity (6.71%). The statistical study revealed a P < 0.01 level of significance correlation between the presence of sugar and triglycerides and the complement molecule. Interleukin 4 and antibodies to receptors have a substantial correlation at the P < 0.01TSHR Ab level TSH.

Conclusions: The C3 gland patients for thyroid peroxidase had the largest amount of antibodies, lipids, and sugar, according to the study. Interleukin-4 occurred in certain individuals who had antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors, according to the research.

Open Access Original Research Article

An In-silico Study Showing Potentials of Selected Anthocyanin Derivatives against Uropathogenic E. coli Adhesin Protein

Abhishek Chowdhury, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Monjur Ahmed Laskar

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 15-26
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430282

Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are indeed an extremely contagious disease that affects people all over the world. FimH is a major virulence component in UTI pathogenesis, and inhibiting FimH function can be an efficient means to disarm UPEC bacteria, as well as a crucial target in the development of non-antibiotic mediated UTI treatment options. The goal of this study was to identify anthocyanins in plant parts and assess

their pharmacological characteristics. A computational methodology was used to predict the pharmacological characteristics of such substances. Compounds with pharmacophores comparable to those of known fimH inhibitors were chosen. Following that, additional research was carried out to assess their drug similarity, inhibitory potential, and IC50 values. Thus, the present study reports few novel fimH inhibitors derived from the selected plant’s phytochemicals, and is significant owing to their therapeutic implication as a non-antibiotic mediated therapy for UTI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Multi-Drug Resistant among Diarrhoeagenic Children 0-60 Months with Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Organisms Isolated in Selected Hospitals of Bauchi State Metropolis

Ijudai Jasada, A. F. Umar, E. Agbo, Omammegbe Abdulrahman

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430284

Background: Salmonella non-typhoidal is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases with a significant increase in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics, causes severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality in the study area. To screen and isolate multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella from diarrhoeagenic children aged 0-60 months.

Methodology: A total of 222 stool samples were collected from symptomatic diarrhoeagenic children between August-December, 2019 in selected hospitals in Bauchi state metropolis. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and antibiotic resistance was determined by the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index.β-lactamase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 50 isolates of Salmonella obtained and 9 positive isolates of non-typhoidal was obtained respectively. Non-typhoidal Salmonella were discovered to be more prevalence among age between 48-60 months (37.50%), male children (62.50%), outpatients (62.50%) and more prevalence among patient attending Bauchi State Specialist Hospital (33.33%).

Results: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility of the commonly used and prescribed antibiotics showed that, 87.5% of the non-typhoidal Salmonella were resistant to cloxacillin, followed by 75% to tetracycline and 75% to chloramphenicol. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of the non-typhoidal Salmonella in this study shows that 62.5% have MAR index of ≥ 0.5, this indicate a significant level of misuse of these antibiotics. The result revealed a positive correlation and the relationship was statistically significant (0.005) at 1% level of significant. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected tetA gene and tetB gene.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated a relatively high level of gene mediated antibiotic resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics. The high prevalence and increased resistance especially among non-typhoidal Salmonella is a cause of concern and reiterates the need for extensive routine checks along with stool samples for better management of gastroenteritis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teaching Microbiology- Online and Offline Challenges during COVID-19 Pandemic

Mihaela Corina Radu, Catalina Vali Matei, Delia Bodea, Anca Dumitrescu, Loredana Sabina Cornelia Manolescu

South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430285

Background: The coronavirus pandemic has caused a general crisis, affecting several sectors of the society, sectors that were not exactly ready to deal with critical situations. This is also the case with education, which was faced a huge challenge: digital, online teaching teaching.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of online microbiology course with a traditional course, taught by the same professors, the students involved are in the first three years of study at the Faculty of Midwifery and Nursing, in the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila" from Bucharest.

Methods: The period of our study was of two years, 2019-2021. The first year had digital classes and the second had face to face classes The study conducted a prospective study. It was used a 10-question questionnaire as a tool for assessing students' perceptions regarding the difficulty of online teaching with every aspect, such as homework’s, projects, presentations and online browsing. It was also compared the method of online and traditional education.

Results: Almost half of our participants, 46.9% found the teaching files for the online lectures satisfactory and understandable while 51% of students considered easier to study online than face to face. Regarding face-to-face studying, 67.3% of the responders voted for the face-to-face teaching. Technical issues were reported by 47.2% when connecting or during online classes.

Findings: This study will contribute to future research that investigates students' perceptions of microbiology courses and laboratories to ensure the development of a quality microbiology curriculum.